Table 1

Characteristics of the included studies

StudyLocationSexAgeStudy designMultiple injuries includedCompliance (%)Study durationLevel of competitionSportIntervention group
Gabbe et al 16 AustraliaMale18–35Randomised control trialNo471 seasonAmateur divisionAustralian footballNHE
Brooks et al 33 United KingdomMale18–40Cohort studyYesNot reported2 seasons1st divisionRugbyStrengthening, stretching, and NHE
Arnason et al 34 Iceland and NorwayMaleNot reportedNon-randomised control trialYes484 seasons1st divisionFootballWarm up; NHE
Soligard et al 35 NorwayFemale13–17Randomised control trialNot reported771 seasonYouthFootballFIFA 11+ (incl NHE programme)
Engebretsen et al 17 NorwayMale17–35Randomised control trialNo211 season1–3rd divisionFootballNHE
Petersen et al 9 DenmarkMale18–40Randomised control trialYes911 season1st–5th divisionFootballRegular training and NHE
Owen et al 36 UKMale18–40Cohort studyNot reportedNot reported2 seasonsProfessionalFootballProprioception, strength (incl NHE)
Grooms et al 37 USAMale18–22Cohort studyNot reported1002 seasonsCollegiateFootballFIFA 11+ (incl NHE)
Sebelien et al 38 NorwayMale18–39Randomised control trialNot reportedNot reported1 season3rd–4th divisionFootballNHE
Seagrave et al 39 USAMale18–40Cohort studyNo311 seasonAll teams (MLB)BaseballNHE
van der Horst et al 10 NetherlandsMale18–40Randomised control trialNo911 seasonAmateurFootballNHE programme
Silvers-Granelli et al 40 USAMale18–25Randomised control trialNot reportedStratified1 seasonCollegiateFootballFIFA 11+ (incl NHE)
del Ama Espinosa et al 41 SpainFemale19–23Randomised control trialNot reported76–801 season1st–2nd divisionFootballNHE; EBE
Nouni-Garcia et al 42 SpainMale18–40Cohort studyYesNot reported2 seasonsAmateurFootballFIFA 11 (incl NHE)
González43 SpainMale18Cohort studyNot reportedUnknown2 seasonsYouthFootballStrengthening and NHE
  • For all studies, the control group performed what would be considered regular training.

  • EBE, elastic band exercise;, ; FLS, frontal leg swing; MJ, multiple jumping; MLB, Major League Baseball Organisation; NHE,  Nordic hamstring exercise; SLS, side leg swing.