Table 1

Definitions of exercise training interventions and non-exercise training controls

TypeDefinition
Intervention
 ResistanceExercise training designed to improve the strength, power, endurance and size of skeletal muscles151
 Stabilisation/motor controlExercise training targeting specific trunk muscles in order to improve control and coordination of the spine and pelvis66
 PilatesExercise training following traditional Pilates principles such as centring, concentration, control, precision, flow and breathing152
 YogaExercise training following traditional yoga principles with a physical component153
 McKenzieExercise training following traditional McKenzie principles such as repeated passive spine movements and sustained positions performed in specific directions154
 FlexionExercise training consisting of controlled movements in flexion only155
 AerobicExercises training such as walking, cycling and jogging in any land-based mode that is designed to improve the efficiency and capacity of the cardiorespiratory system151
 Water-basedExercise training performed in deep or shallow water156
 StretchingExercise training including muscle lengthening using any of the following methods: passive, static, isometric, ballistic or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation157
 OtherExercise training that does not meet any of the specific types of exercise training mentioned above
 MultimodalTwo or more of the specific types of exercise training mentioned above (not deemed multimodal if only part of warm up or cool down)
Control
 TrueNo intervention provided
 Therapist hands-onTreatment including manual therapy, chiropractic, passive physiotherapy, osteopathic, massage or acupuncture
 Therapist hands-offTreatment including general practitioner management, education or psychological interventions