Table 2

Methods for categorisation and percentages of smokers and other covariates used

AuthorsSmokingOther variables
Menotti et al 3 (2016)Never (25.4%), ex (13.6%), current (61.0%)Diet
Turi et al (2017)Never, former, currentAge, SES, BMI
Etemadi et al (2014)Never, quartiles of cigs/dayAge, ethnicity, urban, education, SES, opium use, body size, medical history
Huerta et al (2016)Never (29.6%), former (29.6%), current (40.8%)Age, education, body build, alcohol, diet, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia
Wanner et al (2014)Never (35.1%), former (23.7%),
<20/d (17.0%), >20/d (24.2%)
Age, education, smoking, nutrition
Andersen et al (2000)Never (12.2%), former (19.5%),
1–14 g/d (21.6%), 15–24 g/d
(31.7%), >25 g/d (14.9%)
Age, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, education
Petersen et al 6 (2012)Never (33.9%), former (17.8%), daily (18.2%), heavy (30.1%Age, education, alcohol, stress, lifting, leisure activity
Clays (2014)Current smoker (yes/no) (45.5%)Age, education, occupational class, BMI, cholesterol
Holterman (2012)Never, former, currentAge, BMI, alcohol, social class, chronic disease
Krause et al 7 (2017)Cigarettes/day (linear)Age, income and many other variables
Richard et al. 1 (2015)Never, former, currentAge, race, waist circumference, education, poverty index
Holtermann et al (2010)Never (9.2%), former (23.2%), current (67.6%)Age, BMI, blood pressures, alcohol
Chau et al (2015)Never (35.5%), former (29.8%), current (34.6%)BMI, education, total activity, cardiometabolic disease, marital status, diabetes, hypertension, asthma, family history of coronary disease
Harari et al (2015)Current smoking (39.3%)Age, SES, over-crowding at home, education, ethnicity, cholesterol, HDL, hypertension, blood lipids, glucose, uric acid, diabetes, coffee, alcohol, diet, shift work
Holtermann et al (2012)Never, former, <15 g/day, >15 g/dayAge, alcohol, BMI, leisure activity, systolic pressure, diabetes, cholesterol, income
Stender et al (1993)Cigarettes/dayAge, BMI, heart rate, alcohol
Hu et al (2014)Current smoking (68.3%)Age, BMI, marital status, job status, education, other physical activity, alcohol, hypertension, diabetes, blood pressures
  • For details of references, see the online supplementry table S3.

  • BMI, body mass index; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; SES, socioeconomic status.