Table 3

Characteristics of participants with persistent LBP with available follow-up data for IPD analyses (N=3514)

Participant characteristics at baselineParticipants, n%
Age (mean, 95% CI) (missing=0.4%)349945.7 (45.2 to 46.1)
Sex (missing=0.3%)
 Male155944.5
 Female194555.5
High school education (missing=56%)
 High school completed or less69145.0
 Beyond high school84355.0
Current smoker (missing=57%)
 No98065.0
 Yes52735.0
Regularly physically active (missing=47%)
 No91649.0
 Yes95451.0
BMI (mean, 95% CI) (missing=33%)235226.3 (26.1 to 26.5)
History of LBP (missing=75%)
 No27931.8
 Yes59868.2
Sick leave (past 12 months) (missing=49%)
 No85847.6
 Yes94352.4
Work status (missing=22%)
 Unemployed107639.2
 Employed166960.8
Heavy physical demands at work (missing=57%)
 No97663.9
 Yes55236.1
General health (0–100; mean, 95% CI) (missing=56%)152957.3 (56.3 to 58.2)
Mental health (0–100; mean, 95% CI) (missing=71%)103463.4 (62.1 to 64.7)
Fear avoidance beliefs (0–100; mean; 95% CI) (missing=66%)118239.4 (38.1 to 40.8)
Social support available (missing=56%)
 No48030.8
 Yes108069.2
Episode duration (months; median, IQR) (missing=52%)169214.0 (6.0 to 48.0)
Pain intensity (0–100; mean, 95% CI) (missing=0.3%)341153.5 (52.6 to 54.3)
Functional limitations (0–100; mean, 95% CI) (missing=0.8%)324744.6 (43.8 to 45.4)
Any leg pain (missing=39%)
 No79136.9
 Yes135463.1
Any LBP medication use (missing=44%)
 No92747.3
 Yes103252.7
  • Percentage of missing data for each participant characteristic is noted.

  • Data presented describe the number and percentage for each characteristic unless otherwise noted.

  • BMI, body mass index; IPD, individual participant data; LBP, low back pain.