Table 1

Characteristics of 27 studies with data available for IPD meta-analysis

Trial author, yearCountryPopulation sourceParticipants% femaleMean ageTrial groupsOutcomes availableFollow-up periods
Exercise; comparison (n)Comparison categoryPain intensityFunctional limitationsShortModerateLong
Albaladejo, 201036SpainPrimary care26468.250.91; 2Education*VASRMDQ†++
Cecchi, 201037ItalyPrimary care21066.758.82; 1Manual therapyPain Rating ScaleRMDQ+++
Chan, 201138Hong KongPrimary care4678.346.62; 0N/AVASAberdeen‡+
Costa, 200939AustraliaPrimary care15460.453.71; 1Ø/UsualNRSRMDQ+++
Dufour, 201040DenmarkSecondary care28655.940.92; 0N/AVASRMDQ+++
Ferreira, 200741AustraliaPrimary care24068.853.72; 1Manual therapyVASRMDQ+++
Gudavalli, 200643USAMixed23537.541.61; 1Manual therapyVASRMDQ+
Hartvigsen, 201044DenmarkSecondary care13671.446.62; 1EducationLBPRS-PLBPRS-F+++
Helmhout, 200445The NetherlandsOccupational810.040.92; 0N/ARMDQ+++
Kool, 200746SwitzerlandOccupational15121.242.32; 0N/ANRS+
Koumantakis, 200547UKPrimary care5253.937.02; 0N/AVASRMDQ+
Kuukkanen, 200048FinlandOccupational6050.040.51; 1Ø/UsualBorg CR-10ODI+++
Long, 200449Multisite¶Secondary care13351.141.63; 0N/AVASRMDQ+
Macedo, 201242AustraliaMixed17259.349.22; 0N/ANRSRMDQ+++
Machado, 200750BrazilSecondary care3369.743.51; 1Psychological therapyVASRMDQ**++
Mehling, 200551USAMixed2864.349.32; 0N/AVASRMDQ††++
Morone, 201152ItalySecondary care7064.360.11; 1Ø/UsualVASODI++
Morone, 201253ItalySecondary care7572.055.31; 2Multiple‡‡VASODI++
Petersen, 201163DenmarkSecondary care22456.337.12; 0N/AVAS§§RMDQ++
Rasmussen-Barr, 200954SwedenMixed7150.738.12; 0N/AVASODI+++
Ryan, 201055UKSecondary care3865.845.31; 1EducationNRSRMDQ+
Sjögren, 200656FinlandOccupational9073.345.71; 1Ø/UsualBorg CR-10++
Smeets, 200657The NetherlandsSecondary care22347.141.63; 1Ø/UsualVASRMDQ+++
Sorensen, 201058DenmarkSecondary care20752.239.11; 1EducationNRSRMDQ+++
Staal, 200459The NetherlandsOccupational397.738.21; 1Ø/UsualNRSRMDQ+++
Unsgaard-Tøndel, 201060NorwayMixed10969.740.13; 0N/ANRSODI++¶¶
Wajswelner, 201261AustraliaGeneral8755.249.62; 0N/ANRSPSFS++
  • *Both comparison groups are education.

  • †Spanish RMDQ.

  • ‡Chinese Aberdeen Scale.

  • §Functional outcome only.

  • ¶Multisite (Canada, USA, Germany, UK, Kuwait).

  • **Brazilian/Portuguese RMDQ.

  • ††16-item RMDQ.

  • ‡‡Group 1 is Ø/usual; group 2 is back school.

  • §§Sum of three VAS scales.

  • ¶¶Pain outcome only.

  • Ø, 'No treatment’ comparison; Borg CR-10, Borg Category-Rating Scale; F, function scale; IPD, individual participant data; LBPRS, Low Back Pain Rating Scale; N/A, not applicable; NRS, Numeric Rating Scale; ODI, Oswestry Disability Index; P, pain scale; PSFS, Patient Specific Functional Scale; QBPDS, Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale; RMDQ, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire; SNQ, Standardised Nordic Questionnaire for activity restrictions; VAS, Visual Analogue Scale.