Table 1

Manifestations of different forms of child maltreatment in sport

FormsManifestations in sport
Physical maltreatment Physical contact with a child athlete in the context of sport .
  • To shake, push, catch or throw a child athlete.

  • To strike an athlete with a hand.

  • To punch or kick a child athlete.

  • Hitting an athlete with a hard object.

  • Choking, strangling, poisoning, burning or stabbing a child athlete.

Sexual maltreatment Sexual relations with a child athlete in the context of sport.
  • To penetrate an athlete orally, vaginally or anally, with the penis, finger or object.

Attempt to have sex with a child athlete in the context of sport.
  • To attempt to penetrate a child athlete orally, vaginally or anally, with the penis, finger or object.

Caressing or sexually touching the body of a child athlete in the context of sport.
  • Having oral sex with a child athlete (fellation, cunnilingus).

  • Stroking a child athlete‚Äôs genitals (masturbation).

  • Rubbing against the genitals of a child athlete.

  • Stroking non-genital regions of a child athlete (breasts, buttocks).

Exhibitionism in the context of sport involving a child athlete.
  • Showing genitals to a child athlete or performing sexual acts in front of a child athlete (masturbating in front of a child athlete, having sex in front of a child athlete).

Exploitation of a child athlete in the context of sport (incitement to prostitution or to the production of pornographic material).
  • Filming erotic scenes with a child athlete or broadcasting sexual images of a child athlete (eg, sexting).

Verbal sexual harassment of a young athlete.
  • Having an oral or written sexual conversation with a child athlete or exposing them to sexual images (proposals, suggestions, in person, by phone, in writing and on the internet).

Voyeurism in the sporting context involving a child athlete.
  • Watching a child athlete undress, masturbate, touching themselves or touching someone else or asking them to do so.

Psychological maltreatment To terrorise or threaten violence against a child athlete in the context of sport.
  • Threaten to abandon a child athlete or to hurt them or to hurt someone or something he or she likes.

  • Hitting or throwing objects close to a child athlete or threatening to do so.

Verbal abuse and depreciation of a child athlete in the context of sport.
  • To shout at, humiliate or ridicule a child athlete.

  • To be extremely critical of a child athlete.

  • Rejecting or excluding a child athlete.

Isolation and confinement of a child athlete in the context of sport.
  • Confining a child athlete or limiting his movements by tying him up or asking him to stay still.

  • To unreasonably limit the social interactions of a child athlete (lovers, friends, family and so on).

Insufficient support or affection to a child athlete in the context of sport.
  • To voluntarily ignore the emotional needs of a child athlete.

  • To be detached or indifferent towards a child athlete.

Behaviours that promote the corruption, exploitation and adoption of destructive, antisocial or unhealthy behaviours of a child athlete in the context of sport.
  • To force or oblige a child athlete to perform extremely intense workouts excessively until exhaustion or until they vomit.

  • Forcing or asking a child athlete to train while injured even though they have received medical advice not to do so.

  • Forcing or asking a child athlete to perform movements or techniques that are too difficult for his/her abilities, putting them at risk of injury.

  • Forcing or asking a child athlete to engage in unhealthy eating behaviours to achieve the ideal weight in their sport.

  • Forcing or asking a child athlete to consume doping products or to adopt doping methods to improve performance.

  • Forcing or asking a child athlete to undertake inappropriate medical treatments.

  • Forcing or asking a child athlete to commit acts of violence: hurting another athlete (punching, hitting with sports equipment and so on), humiliating or ridiculing another athlete, or threatening to hurt another athlete.

NeglectPhysical neglect.
Failure to supervise a child athlete in the sporting context leading to physical injury.
  • Allowing a child athlete to participate in a training or competition while injured, even though they have received medical advice not to do so.

  • Knowing that a child athlete is engaging in problematic eating behaviours in order to achieve the ideal weight in his or her sport without intervening.

  • Failure to ensure the safety of athletic equipment.

Medical neglect of a child athlete in the context of sport (applies to the parent only).
  • Refusing to provide a child athlete with the necessary medical care specific to his health problem that has been diagnosed by a professional and resulted from the practice of his sport.

Emotional neglect.
Permissive attitude towards the anti social or criminal behaviour of a child athlete.
  • Letting a child athlete behave in a violent manner towards another athlete without intervening.

  • Letting a child athlete endure violent acts from another athlete without intervening.

  • Allowing an athlete to consume alcohol or drugs during activities related to the sport (eg, team party, competitions, tournaments).

  • Letting a child athlete consume doping products or adopt doping methods without intervening.

Failure to supervise a child athlete in the context of sport leading to physical, sexual or psychological abuse.
  • Knowing that a child athlete has been physically, sexually or psychologically abused or neglected and doing nothing to protect him/her.

Lack of providing treatment for psychological or psychiatric problems of a child athlete in the context of sport (applies to the parent only).
  • Refusing to provide psychological care to a child athlete while the athlete clearly needs it.

Abandonment of a child athlete in the context of sport.
  • Abandoning a child athlete during a training assignment, a competition or during a trip.

Educational neglect.
  • Ask a child athlete to drop out of school or take a break from school in order to practise a sport.