Table 3

Interventions for both intervention and control groups, duration and results

Intervention groupControl groupIntervention Duration and typeResults
SMD (95% CI)
Hip exercisesQuadriceps exercises
High-intensity resistance exercise
 Ashok21 Sidelying abduction 3×10 RM
Abduction in standing 3×10
Isometric abduction 3×10
QS 1×10
KE 1×10
QS 1×10
KE 1×10
6 weeks
Stretching: hamstrings, calves, quads 3×30 s
Knee ROM
Hamstring strengthening
6 weeks: global pain: −1.18 (−1.97 to −0.40)
WOMAC: −1.77 (−2.63 to −0.90)
Low-intensity resistance exercise
 Singh et al 22 Sidelying abduction 3×10 with weight cuffQS 3×10 IRQ 3×10
SLR 3×10
QS 3×10 with hold
IRQ 3×10
SLR 3×10 with hold at 65% of 1 RM
6 weeks
Stretching: calves, hamstrings, quads, iliotibial band, posterior capsule 3×30 s
6 weeks:
WOMAC*: −1.71 (−2.57 to −0.86)
6MWT: −1.48 (−2.30 to −0.66)
 Verma and Agarwal20 Sidelying abduction 3×10 RM
Abduction in standing 3×5 RM
Isometric abduction 3×5 RM
KE 3×10 RM
SLR 3×10 RM
KE with hold 3×10 RM
SLR 3×10 RM
IRQ 3×10 RM
5 min bike
5 weeks
Lower limb stretches
5 weeks: global pain: −1.26 (−2.05 to −0.47)
WOMAC*: −0.84 (−1.59 to −0.09)
TUG: −0.93 (−1.69 to −0.17)
Step test: −0.99 (−1.76 to −0.23)
Functional neuromuscular exercise
 Callaghan et al 41 Step-downs 2×10Sit to stand 2×10
Mini-squats 2×10
IRQ 3×10
SLR 3×10
Isometric quadriceps exercises 3×10
4 weeks
N/A
4 weeks: pain: data requested
50 m walk: data requested
 Chaipinyo and Karoonsupcharoen 24 Stepping forward, backward, sideways 1×30 eachMini-squats 1×10KE 3×10 with hold 4 weeks
N/A
4 weeks:
KOOS-pain: 0.35 (−0.26 to 0.97)
KOOS-ADL 0.09 (0.52 to 0.70)
15 m walk: −1.63 (−2.34 to −0.91)
 Olagbegi et al 25 Forward, backward and lateral step-up/step-down 1×10QS 1×10
Wall squats 10 RM
SLR
QS 1×10
Wall squats 10 RM
KE with hold 10 RM
12 weeks
N/A
4 weeks: global pain: −0.83 (−1.38 to −0.27)
IKHOAM: −0.16 (−0.69 to 0.36)
12 weeks: global pain: 1.36 (0.77 to 1.96)
 Özdincler et al 23 Lateral, retro step-up 1×30
Stair climbing machine
Bilateral mini-squats 1×30KE 50%, 75% and 100% of 10 RM 1×10 5 weeks
N/A
5 weeks:
10 m walk: −1.34 (−2.14 to −0.53)
10 step-up: −1.16 (−1.94 to −0.38)
Multimodal exercise
 Bennell et al 19 Isometric abduction 2×5
Side-stepping 2×30
Stepping forward, backward, sideways 3×10 each
Step-up/downs 3×10
Wall squats±split feet 3×10IRQ 10 RM
KE 10 RM
KE with 30 degrees hold 10 RM
SLR 10 RM
Outer ROM KE
12 weeks
N/A
12 weeks: global pain: 0.13 (−0.31 to 0.56)
WOMAC: −0.15 (−0.58 to 0.29) stair ascent: 0.13 (−0.30 to 0.57)
30 s STS: 0.13 (−0.31 to 0.56) step test: −0.08 (−0.51 to 0.36)
AQoL: 0 (−0.43 to 0.43)
  • Global  pain/pain  was   assessed using  VAS.

  • *All  WOMAC subscales.

  • 3×10/5 RM, 3 repetitions of 10/5 repetition maximum; QS, quadriceps setting; IRQ, inner range quadriceps; SLR, straight leg raise; KE, knee extension; VAS, visual analogue scale; WOMAC, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index; KOOS, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score; N/A, not available; ADL, activities of daily living; IKHOAM, Ibadan Knee/Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Measure; 6MWT, 6 min walk test; TUG, timed up and go.