Table 2

Characteristics of included studies

Participant characteristicsOutcome measures
KOA diagnosisN total (N males)Age (years)BMI (kg/m2)K-L gradePainPatient-reported functionPhysical function testsQoL
Ashok21 U, MC30 (14)52 (5.2)NR1–3GlobalWOMAC
Bennell et al 19 MC, pain ≥25/100100 (48)62.7 (7.3)29.7
2–4Global, walkingWOMAC10 m walk
Stair negotiation
30 s STS; step test
Square step test
Single leg balance
Callaghan et al 41 ACR18 (12)59 (range 35–80)NRNRGlobal50 m walk
Chaipinyo and Karoonsupcharoen
ACR48 (11)62 (6)25
NRKOOS-painKOOS-PS50 m walk; 15 m walk
Stair negotiation
Olagbegi et al 25 ACR55 (4)61.1 (13.75)31.26
2 onlyGlobal, walkingPASE
Ozdincler et al 23 ACR30 (2)54.5 (7.36)NR2 onlyGlobal, KPS50 m walk; 10 m walk
Stair negotiation
10 squat time
Singh et al 22 ACR MC, U/B, pain≥3/1030 (14)55.33 (3.99)NR2–3WOMAC6 MWT
Verma et al 20 U, MC30 (NR)50–70NRNRGlobalWOMACTUG/GUAG
Step test
  • Pain outcome measures: global pain measured on visual analogue scale; KOOS-pain; KPS.

  • Patient-reported function: WOMAC; KOOS-PS; PASE.

  • Physical function tests: 30 s STS; TUG/GUAG; 6MWT.

  • Diagnosis: ACR meets  clinical criteria for classification and reporting of KOA.

  • ACR, American College of Rheumatology; B, bilateral; U, unilateral; MC, medial compartment; 6MWT, 6 min walk test; KOA, knee osteoarthritis; KOOS-pain, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score pain subscale; KPS, Knee Pain Score; KOOS-PS, Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score; NR, not reported; PASE, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly; K-L, Kellgren-Lawrence; QoL, quality of life; AQoL, assessment of quality of life; STS, sit to stand test; TUG/GUAG, timed up and go, get up and go; WOMAC, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index; NR, not reported.