Table 4

Effects of short-term (ST), medium-term (MT) and long-term (LT) RET on blood biomarkers

Blood markerNumber of studiesNumber of participantsMean difference
(95% CI)
P valuesHeterogeneity
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)ST38066−5.55 (–16.58 to 5.48) †0.32χ²=2.39, I²=16%, p=0.30
MT324424400.57 (–5.63 to 6.77)0.86χ²=190.82, I²=84%, p<0.00001
LT811597−8.71 (–30.83 to 13.40)†0.44χ²=71.91, I²=90%, p<0.00001
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mg/dL)ST380660.82 (–5.40 to 7.03)0.56χ²=5.99, I²=50%, p=0.11
MT396015902.23 (–0.06 to 4.51)†0.06χ²=734.44, I²=95%, p<0.00001
LT91791602.79 (–0.69 to 6.28)†0.12χ²=12.33, I²=35%, p=0.14
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mg/dL)ST38066−5.10 (–11.09 to 0.90)†0.10χ²=0.32, I²=0%, p=0.85
MT31503497−2.86 (–8.77 to 3.05)†0.34χ²=292.46, I²=90%, p<0.00001
LT6135130−3.69 (– 10.99 to 3.60)†0.32χ²=2.39, I²=0%, p=0.79
Triglycerides (mg/dL)ST38066−3.63 (−17.45 to 10.2)†0.61χ²=0.14, I²=0%, p=0.93
MT37590575−3.99 (–8.78 to 0.8)†0.29χ²=250.54, I²=86%, p<0.00001
LT6135130−2.82 (–14.98 to 9.33)†0.65χ²=7.99, I²=37%, p=0.16
Fasted insulin (µU/mL)MT20304286−0.59 (–0.97 to –0.21)†0.002*χ²=84.86, I²=78%, p<0.00001
LT48990−0.60 (–1.93 to 0.72)†0.37χ²=45.43, I²=93%, p<0.00001
HOMA-IRMT99688−1.22 (–2.29 to –0.15)†0.02*χ²=94.62, I²=92%, p<0.00001
LT33833−0.18 (–0.64 to 0.27)†0.60χ²=1.45, I²=0%, p=0.48
Fasted glucose (mg/dL)ST26458−3.39 (– 6.90 to 0.11)†0.06χ²=1.66, I²=40%, p=0.20
MT33499485−2.39 (–4.47 to –0.31)†0.02*χ²=318.33, I²=90%, p<0.00001
LT7135136−0.07 (–2.80 to 2.67)†0.96χ²=46.09, I²=87%, p<0.00001
C reactive protein (mg/L)ST24141−0.43 (–1.05 to 0.19)†0.07χ²=1.58, I²=37%, p=0.21
MT12199195−0.28 (–0.72 to 0.15)†0.20χ²=44.57, I²=75%, p<0.00001
  • *Indicates statistical significance.

  • †Indicates favouring RET.

  • CON, control group; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; LT, long term; MT, medium term; RET, resistance exercise training; ST, short term.