Table 1

Moderation analysis for level of sensors and grade of device by subgroup

Moderator variableSubgroup levelP valuesHedges’ g (95% CI)
Overall activities
 SensorsACC (n=35)<0.01−0.36 (−0.55 to −0.17)*
ACC+HR (n=20)0.06 (−0.18 to 0.31)
ACC+HR+HS (n=3)−0.99 (−1.65 to −0.33)*
ACC+HS (n=45)−0.15(−0.32 to 0.01)
 Device gradeCommercial (n=58)0.27−0.27 (−0.42 to −0.12)*
Research (n=46)−0.14 (−0.31 to 0.03)
AEE
 SensorsACC (n=8)0.19−0.40 (−0.84 to 0.04)
ACC+HR (n=9)−0.04 (−0.47 to 0.38)
ACC+HS (n=16)−0.32 (−0.63 to −0.01)*
 Device gradeCommercial (n=18)0.62−0.38 (−0.67 to −0.08)*
Research (n=17)−0.27 (−0.57 to 0.04)
Ambulation and stairs
 SensorsACC (n=24)0.01−0.23 (−0.51 to 0.06)
ACC+HR (n=10)0.44 (0.02 to 0.87)*
ACC+HS (n=19)0.40 (0.08 to 0.72)*
 Device gradeCommercial (n=35)0.05−0.04 (−0.28 to 0.20)
Research (n=20)0.37 (0.05 to 0.68)*
Cycling
 SensorsACC (n=3)<0.01−3.75 (−4.65 to −2.85)*
ACC+HR (n=9)−0.03 (−0.47 to 0.40)
ACC+HS (n=9)−0.41 (−0.84 to 0.02)
 Device gradeCommercial (n=14)0.28−0.82 (−1.30 to −0.35)*
Research (n=9)−0.41 (−0.99 to 0.17)
Running
 SensorsACC (n=19)0.18−0.06 (−0.36 to 0.24)
ACC+HR (n=7)0.34 (−0.15 to 0.82)
ACC+HS (n=10)−0.36 (−0.77 to 0.05)
 Device gradeCommercial (n=28)0.080.06 (−0.18 to 0.30)
Research (n=10)−0.36 (−0.76 to 0.04)
Sedentary and household
 SensorsACC (n=6)<0.01−0.56 (−1.16 to −0.13)*
ACC+HR (n=9)0.14 (−0.27 to 0.55)
ACC+HS (n=13)0.39 (0.06 to 0.73)*
 Device gradeCommercial (n=17)<0.01−0.27 (−0.59 to 0.05)
Research (n=13)0.41 (0.05 to 0.77)*
TEE (DLW)
 SensorsACC (n=5)<0.01−1.24 (−1.66 to −0.81)*
ACC+HS (n=10)−0.13 (−0.40 to 0.14)
 Device gradeCommercial (n=6)<0.01−1.13 (−1.51 to −0.76)*
Research (n=10)−0.13 (−0.39 to 0.14)
  • Data are shown where at least three comparisons were included. P values refer to a between subgroup comparison.

  • *Significant effect size at the subgroup level (p<0.05).

  • ACC, accelerometry alone; AAC+HR, accelerometry and heart rate; ACC+HR+HS, accelerometry and heart rate and heat sensing; ACC+HS, accelerometry and heat sensing; AEE, Activity energy expenditure; DLW, doubly labelled water; TEE, total energy expenditure.