Table 2

Examples: classification of contact as a mechanism for sudden-onset injury

InjuryType of contactExamples
Non-contactNoneNo evidence of disruption or perturbation of the player’s movement patternACL tear in a basketball player landing with knee valgus/rotation after a jump, with no contact with other players.
ContactIndirectThrough another athleteACL tear in a handball player landing, out of balance after being pushed on her shoulder by an opponent while in the air.
IndirectThrough an objectDownhill skier suffers a concussion from a crash, after being knocked off balance hitting the gate with his knee.
ContactDirectWith another athleteACL tear in a football player from a direct tackle to the anterior aspect of the knee, forcing the knee into hyperextension.
DirectWith an objectVolleyball player being hit in the face by a spiked ball, resulting in a concussion.