Table 7

Quadriceps/anterior thigh injuries injury prevention: effect and grading the quality of evidence

OutcomesRR (95% CI)Effect size
Risk of injury
 FIFA 11+ programme versus usual care; n=3417, male/female football*21 60 0.73 (0.48 to 1.12); I2=0.0%Low quality of evidence
Individual studies
 FIFA 11+ programme performed pre-football and post-football versus to FIFA 11+ performed pre-football; n=280, male football62 0.16 (0.02 to 1.35)Very low quality of evidence
 Modified FIFA 11+ with rescheduling of Part 2 versus standard FIFA 11+; n=806, male football64 1.95 (1.11 to 3.43)High quality of evidence
 Balance board training versus usual care; n=140, female football65 3.76 (0.16 to 90.77)Very low level of evidence
  • *Based on pooled data from meta-analysis. RR (risk ratio); I2 (heterogeneity in study results); the preventive effect is assessed as RR assessed as trivial (RR >0.78), small (0.78≥ RR >0.61), medium (0.61≥ RR >0.47) and large (RR ≤0.47).47