Table 2

Athlete-competition Therapeutic Use Exemptions by substance and method class as defined in the WADA’s Prohibited List over five Summer and Winter Olympic Games 2010–2018

WADA’s Prohibited List classSubstance or methodMale athletes
N (%)
Female athletes
N (%)
All athletes
N (%)
S1Anabolic Agents0 (0%)2 (0.02%)2 (0.01%)
S2Peptide hormones, growth factors, related substances and mimetics8 (0.07%)3 (0.03%)11 (0.05%)
S3Beta-2 Agonists59 (0.51%)34 (0.39%)93 (0.46%)
S4Hormone and metabolic modulators5 (0.04%)3 (0.03%)8 (0.04%)
S2/S4Insulin (changed categories)13 (0.11%)2 (0.02%)15 (0.07%)
S5Diuretics and masking agents1 (0.01%)2 (0.02%)3 (0.01%)
S6Stimulants4 (0.03%)21 (0.24%)25 (0.12%)
S7Narcotics3 (0.03%)2 (0.02%)5 (0.02%)
S8Cannabinoids0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
S9Glucocorticoids30 (0.26%)17 (0.2%)47 (0.23%)
M1Manipulation of blood and blood components0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
M2Chemical and physical manipulation1 (0.01%)5 (0.06%)6 (0.03%)
M3Gene and cell doping0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
P1Beta blockers (prohibited only in some sports)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
  • WADA, World Anti-Doping Agency.