Table 1

Study characteristics

SportPopulationSampleSexAge*Discomfort or injury at baselineLost to follow-upIncluded in the analysisSeasonsInjury definitionInjury trackingInjuriesInjured players
Andersson et al 39HandballUpper division329168 M
161 F
NR155 past SH pain
156 SH problem last 7 days
46 substantial SH problem last 7 days
922671Overuse SH injury (OSTRC score >40)OSTRC questionnaire (six times during the season)7474
Clarsen et al 15HandballProfessional206M24.0 (4.0)154 past SH pain
65 SH pain at baseline
23 unable to play due to SH pain
421611Overuse SH injury‡ (OSTRC score >40)OSTRC questionnaire (15 times during the season)108108
Camp et al 11BaseballProfessional pitchers81M27.9 (4.5)NR4132 (51 tested multiple seasons)6SH or EL injury that caused missing at least one practice or gameAthletic trainer or physician25 SH
28 EL
50
Oyama et al 41 BaseballHigh school players832M16.5 (1.2)NRNR832 (tested multiple season NR)3SH or EL injury that caused missing/limited exposure in at least one practice or gameWeekly email completed by athletic trainer25 SH
14 EL
2 Both
41
Sakata et al 34 BaseballYouth players593326 M
27 F
9.6 (1.2)176 previous SH or EL pain (excluded from analysis)643531Medial EL pain during throwing with abnormal sonography or pain during clinical assessmentDiaries to record elbow or shoulder pain daily7878
Shanley et al 35 BaseballYouth pitchers47M9.9 (1.2)Exclusion criteriaNR115 (tested multiple season NR)3SH or EL injury that caused missing at least one practice or gameTeam athletic trainer or study physical therapist evaluated reported complaint9 SH
10 EL
33
Adolescent pitchers6814.9 (1.2)8 SH
8 EL
Shanley et al 12BaseballHigh school players143M15.8 (1.3)Exclusion criteriaNR1431SH and EL injury reported by the player to the coach or athletic trainerAthletic Healthcare System Daily Injury Report form and Simtrack mobility system16 SH
11 EL
18 baseball
Softball103F15.6 (1.2)1039 softball
Shitara et al 36BaseballHigh school pitchers132M16.3 (0.6)41 past SH pain
57 past EL pain
17 current SH pain
25 current EL pain
271051SH or EL injury that caused missing at least 8 daysInjuries reported at medical check-ups2121
Tyler et al 37 BaseballHigh school pitchers101MNRNRNR166 (42 tested multiple seasons)4SH or EL injury that caused missing at least one practice or gameInjuries recorded by athletic trainer or physical therapist of each team.19 SH
9 EL
28
Wilk et al 33BaseballProfessional pitchers296M24.7 (4.1)NR8505 (126 tested multiple seasons)8EL injury requiring placement on the disabled listAthletic trainers or internet databases4938
Wilk et al 38 BaseballProfessional pitchers122M25.6 (4.1)NoneNR170 (38 tested multiple seasons)3SH injury causing limited participation or unable to playHead athletic trainer and team physician3330
Wilk et al 32BaseballProfessional pitchers296M24.7 (4.1)None8505 (126 tested multiple seasons)8SH injury requiring placement on the disabled listAthletic trainers or internet databases7551
Hjelm et al 40 TennisJunior6540 M
25 F
15.5 (2.5)Exclusion criteria10552SH or EL injury that caused missing at least one practice or gamePlayers contacted the investigator if they had an injury2424
Forthomme et al 14 VolleyballProfessional6634 M
32 F
24.0 (5.0)32 history of SH pain in dominant shoulder2641SH pain that caused absence from sport between 1 and 3 weeksWeekly questionnaire about shoulder pain33
Walker et al 13 SwimmersCompetitive7437 M
37 F
15.0 (3.0)Exclusion criteria1741SH pain that interfered with competition or training and lasts at least 2 weeksWeekly diary about injury status1717
  • *Reported as mean (SD).

  • †Included in the meta-analysis.

  • ‡The authors acknowledged the inclusion of injuries that were acute flare-ups of chronic problems, and long-term problems initially caused by an acute trauma or purely caused by an acute trauma.

  • EL, elbow; F, female; M, male;NR, not reported; OSTRC, Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre Overuse Injury Questionnaire; SH, shoulder.