Table 1

Different causal questions and their link to sports injury prevention (for an in-depth description of the differences between average, direct, in-direct and total causal effect, we guide the reader to complementary literature19 20)

NumberCausal questionLink to sports injury preventionAdvice
1 What is the average causal effect of a training exposure variable on sports injury occurrence?Population-based preventionSame advice for everyone
2 What is the direct, indirect and/or total causal effect of other variables (eg, scapular control) than training exposure on sports injury occurrence?Population-based preventionSame advice for everyone
3 How much training is ‘too much’ before athletes with different characteristics (eg, experience) sustain sports-related injury?Personalised athlete-specific preventionDifferent advice to different athletes
4 Does the risk of sports injury differ between athletes with a certain characteristic (eg, high experience) compared with athletes with other characteristics (eg, low experience), depending on how much training they perform?Personalised athlete-specific preventionDifferent advice to different athletes