Table 1

Study characteristics

StudyCountryPopulation
(all soccer)
AgeInterventionIntervention details*Sample size analysed†Risk of bias
Barber Foss et al 49 USAMiddle and high schools14.0±1.7‡Neuromuscular training (CORE intervention)3× week preseason (20–25 min)
2× week in-season (10–15 min)
Total: 142
IG: 74
CG: 68
High
Emery and Meeuwisse50 CanadaUnder-13 to 18 teams (indoor soccer)IG: U13–15: 54%
IG: U16–18: 46%
CG: U13–15: 38.6%
CG: U16–18: 61.4%
Neuromuscular training
(plus home-based balance training)
Every practice and game (15 min)
Balance board at least 3× week (15 min)
Total: 412
IG: 161
CG: 251
Unclear
Espinosa et al 51 SpainFirst and second National divisionsTeam 1: 23±4
Team 2: 19±2
Team 3: 22±3
Eccentric hamstring exercises2× week (estimated 10–15 min)Total: 43
IG: 22
CG: 21
High
Gilchrist et al 52 USACollege teams (NCAA)IG: 19.88
CG: 19.88
Neuromuscular training (PEP programme)3× week (<30 min)Total: 1435
IG: 583
CG: 852
High
Heidt et al 53 USAHigh schools14–18Neuromuscular training (Frappier Acceleration Training programme)3× week during preseason only (unknown duration)Total: 300
IG: 42
CG: 258
High
LaBella et al 54 USAHigh schoolsIG: 16.52
CG: 16.37
Neuromuscular trainingEvery practice (20 min) and game (shorter version)Total: 654
IG: 321
CG: 333
High
Rössler et al 55 Switzerland, Germany, Czech Republic, The NetherlandsUnder-9 to 13 teamsIG: 11.6±1.1
CG: 11.4±1.0
Neuromuscular training (FIFA 11+Kids)At least 2× week (15–20 min)Total: 171
IG: 103
CG: 68
High
Söderman et al 56 SwedenSecond and third National divisionsIG: 20.4±4.6
CG: 20.5±5.4
Balance board training
(home-based)
Every day for 30 days then 3× week for the rest of the season (10–15 min)Total: 140
IG: 62
CG: 78
High
Soligard et al 57 NorwayUnder-15 and under-16 teams15.4±0.7Neuromuscular training (FIFA 11+)Every practice (20 min) and game (10 min)
2–5× week depending on team
Total: 1892
IG: 1055
CG: 837
High
Steffen et al 58 NorwayUnder-17 teams15.4±0.8Neuromuscular training (FIFA 11)Every training for 15 sessions then 1× week for the rest of the season (20 min)Total: 2020
IG: 1073
CG: 947
High
Waldén et al 59 SwedenUnder-14 to 18 teamsIG: 14.0±1.2
CG: 14.1±1.2
Neuromuscular training (Knäkontroll)2× week (15 min)Total: 4564
IG: 2479
CG: 2085
High
Zebis et al 60 DenmarkUnder-18 teams15–18Using a lighter, smaller footballThe different football was used during matches and trainingTotal: 332
IG: 147
CG: 185
High
  • *All interventions were for one season/year.

  • †Sample size only relates to female football players.

  • ‡The age of these participants includes women from other sports (volleyball and basketball).

  • Risk of bias, Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool; CG, control group; CORE, exercises focused on the trunk and lower extremity; IG, intervention group; NCAA, National Collegiate Athletic Association; PEP, Prevent injury and Enhance Performance.