Table 1

PTSD-type symptoms triggered by the pandemic and potential treatment modalities106–109

Symptom categoryManifestationsPotential modalities
IntrusionIntrusive memories, nightmares, flashbacks, intense distress or physiological reactivity after exposure to reminders of the trauma
  • Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy

  • Prolonged exposure therapy

  • Cognitive processing therapy

  • Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing

Negative moods/cognitionsInability to recall events related to the trauma, distorted beliefs about the world, distorted blame of self/others for causing the trauma, fear, horror, guilt, anger, decreased interest in activities, feeling alienated from others, constricted affect
Altered arousal/reactivityIrritability, aggression, self-destructive behaviour, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, problems concentrating, sleep disturbance
AvoidanceShunning pandemic-related memories or external reminders of the trauma
DissociativeNumbing, detachment, decreased awareness, derealisation, depersonalisation
  • PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder.