Table 4

Comparison between pre-COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 parameters in COVID-19+ and COVID-19− players

COVID-19+ preCOVID-19+ postP valueCOVID-19− preCOVID-19− postP value
n1515n99
SpirometrySpirometry
 FVC (L)5.64 (5.44–6.15)5.35 (5.01–6.20)<0.05* FVC (L)5.76 (5.24–5.86)5.66 (5.03–5.8)0.95
 % of the theor101 (98–107.5)96 (92–106.5)0.18 % of the theor103 (90–111)104 (97–105)0.33
 FEV1 (L)4.91 (4.77–5.02)4.62 (4.08–4.86)<0.05* FEV1 (L)4.77 (4.5–5.22)4.52 (4.17–5.03)0.09
 % of the theor104 (99–109)95 (91.5–103)<0.05* % of the theor101 (99–105)102 (97–109)0.83
 PEF (L)11.15 (9.59–11.34)9.26 (8.65–10.58)<0.05* PEF (L)11.2 (8.9–11.8)9.52 (8.85–10.36)0.05
 % of the theor103 (97.5–109.5)89 (83–100.5)<0.05* % of the theor106 (95–112)91 (85–97)0.09
 MVV (L/min)180.9 (151.6–197.9)161.7 (141.3–170.2)<0.05* MVV (L/min)183.3 (171.1–202.2)158.2 (146–176.1)0.17
 % of the theor110 (90.5–122)97 (91.5–104)<0.05* % of the theor116 (99–119)100 (95–109)0.17
Stress-test ECGStress-test ECG
 Resting HR (bpm)53 (48–60)65 (58–69)<0.05* Resting HR (bpm)60 (57–62)61 (55–62)0.86
 Max HR (bpm)176 (174–181)180 (172–185)0.89 Max HR (bpm)178 (177–182)179 (173–182)0.09
 % of the theor90 (88–92)91 (89–92)0.73 % of the theor90 (88–92)91 (89–92)0.26
 Resting SBP (mm Hg)105 (100–110)110 (100–110)0.91 Resting SBP (mm Hg)110 (105–120)110 (110–120)0.86
 Resting DBP (mm Hg)65 (65–70)65 (60–70)0.53 Resting DBP (mm Hg)70 (60–70)65 (60–70)0.67
 Max SBP (mm Hg)190 (185–200)190 (180–205)0.72 Max SBP (mm Hg)200 (195–200)190 (180–195)0.23
 Max DBP (mm Hg)75 (65–80)75 (70–80)0.26 Max DBP (mm Hg)75 (70–75)75 (75–80)0.60
EchocardiogramEchocardiogram
 LV EDD (mm)56 (53.8–58)55 (51.8–57.8)0.14 LV EDD (mm)53.3 (52–54.5)53 (52–55)0.49
 LV ESD (mm)35 (32–37.5)34 (31–37.5)0.54 LV ESD (mm)32.5 (30–35)33 (32–35)0.89
 IVSd (mm)9.9 (9.6–10)10 (9.75–10)0.95 IVSd (mm)9.63 (9–10.3)10 (9–10.5)0.40
 PWd (mm)9.9 (9.6–10)10 (9.75–10)0.59 PWd (mm)9.63 (9–10)10 (9–10.5)0.36
 LV EDV (mL)153.7 (139.7–166.6)151 (126.5–168)0.47 LV EDV (mL)136.5 (130–144.4)134.5 (131–146)0.84
 LV EDV ind (mL/m2)75.5 (67.5–82.9)73.5 (61.6–84.9)0.41 LV EDV ind (mL/m2)68.1 (63.2–73.1)68.8 (62.9–71.6)0.88
 LV ESV (mL)50.9 (40.9–59.9)46 (37.5–62)0.89 LV ESV (mL)42.5 (35–51)45 (42–45)0.96
 LV ESV ind (mL/m2)26.1 (19.8–28.7)23.6 (18.3–30)0.78 LV ESV ind (mL/m2)22.3 (17.6–25.9)22.9 (20–24.6)0.88
 FS %36 (35–39.5)37 (34.5–40)0.58 FS %36.5 (36–41)37 (36–40)0.83
 EF %57 (57–62.5)60 (58–63)0.81 EF %58 (56–60)62 (56–63)0.24
 Mitral E:A ratio1.87 (1.63–2)1.6 (1.45–1.86)0.21 Mitral E:A ratio1.88 (1.64–2.25)1.74 (1.5–2)0.24
  • Data are presented as median (IQR).

  • *statistically significant difference.

  • BPM, beats per minute; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; LV EDD, left ventricle end-diastolic diameter; LV EDV, left ventricle end-diastolic volume; EF, ejection fraction; LV ESD, left ventricle end-systolic diameter; LV ESV, left ventricle end-systolic volume; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in the first second; FS, fractional shortening; FVC, forced vital capacity; HR, heart rate; ind, indexed for body surface area; IVSd, end-diastolic interventricular septum thickness; MVV, maximal voluntary ventilation; PEF, peak expiratory flow volume; PWd, end-diastolic posterior wall thickness; SBP, systolic blood pressure; Theor, theoretical for the age and body size.