Table 4

Action categories within each intervention function

Function definition from Michie et al Action categories within functionNumber of times actions identified within actions categories
A. Education
Increasing knowledge or understanding
A1. Increasing knowledge or understanding of benefits of cycling27
A2. Increasing knowledge or understanding of cycling safety23
A3. Route planning/personal and individualised travel planning44
A4. Practical or instrumental information4
A5. Signposting to cycling-related contacts1
Sub-total 99
B. Persuasion
Using communication to induce positive or negative feelings or stimulate action
B1. One-to-one counselling8
B2. Group counselling2
B3. Tailored intervention actions13
B4. Travel diaries with feedback5
B5. Mass media campaigns21
Sub-total 49
C. Incentivisation
Creating expectation of reward
C1. Material8
C2. Financial22
C3. Points, prizes, gamification and challenges38
Sub-total 68
D. Coercion
Creating expectation of punishment or cost
D1. Increased paid vehicle parking3
Sub-total 3
E. Training
Imparting skills
E1. Practical cycling training courses and sessions52
E2. Cycle awareness training for vehicle drivers1
Sub-total 53
F. Restriction
Using rules to reduce the opportunity to engage in target behaviour (or to increase the target behaviour by reducing the opportunity to engage in competing behaviours)
F1. Reducing free vehicle parking2
Sub-total 2
G. Environmental restructuring
Changing the physical or social context
Physical context
G1. Bike storage31
G2. Bike maintenance facilities6
G3. Facilities for cyclists13
G4. Bike wheel channels on stairs5
G5. Safety features8
G6. Route signage3
Sub-total 66
Social context
G7. Cycling-related personnel8
G8. Large events and mass participation32
G9. Group cycling27
G10. Workplace or organisational policies16
Sub-total 83
H. Modelling
Providing an example for people to aspire to or imitate
H1. ‘Buddying’ systems3
Sub-total 3
I. Enablement
Increasing means/reducing barriers to increase capability or opportunity
I1. Provision of bike accessories12
I2. Provision of eBikes4
I3. Provision of bikes26
I4. Small-scale bike share schemes5
I5. Provision of bike maintenance11
Sub-total 58
Overall total 484