Table 3

Summary of health outcomes (in alphabetical order) by population groups addressed in the 2020 global guidelines evidence reviews

5–17 years PA and SBAdults
18–64 years
Adults over 18 years
Adults over 65 years
Pregnancy and post partumChronic conditions*Children and adults with disability*
Adiposity—weight gain, weight change, weight control, weight stability, weight status and weight maintenanceCriticalCriticalCriticalCriticalCritical
Adverse eventsCriticalCriticalCriticalCritical
All-cause and cause-specific mortalityCriticalCriticalCriticalCritical—cancer and cancer-specific
Bone healthCritical
Cardiometabolic healthCritical
Cognitive outcomesCriticalCriticalCriticalCritical—MS, PD, Stk, Sch, ADHD
Delivery complicationsImportant
Disease progressionCritical—HT, T2D, HIV
Critical—cancer recurrence
Falls and fall-related injuriesCritical
Fetal outcomesCritical
Functional abilityCritical
Gestational diabetes mellitusCritical
Gestational hypertension/pre-eclampsiaCritical
Health-related quality of lifeImportantImportantCritical—HT, T2D, HIVCritical—MS, SCI, ID, MCD, Sch
Incidence of cancerCriticalCriticalCritical
Incidence of CVDCriticalCriticalCritical
Incidence of hypertensionImportantImportant
Incidence of type 2 diabetesCriticalCriticalCritical
Mental health (symptoms of anxiety and depression)CriticalCriticalCriticalCritical
Physical fitnessCritical
Physical functionCritical—HT, T2D, HIVCritical—MS, SCI, ID, PD, Stk
Prosocial behaviourImportant
Psychosocial outcomesImportant
Risk of comorbid conditionsCritical—HT, T2D, HIVCritical—MS, SCI, ID
  • *Outcomes are for subpopulation condition as listed: HT, T2D, MS, SCI, ID, PD, Stk, Sch, ADHD, MCD.

  • †Critical outcome: an outcome that is critical to decision-making. Important outcome: an outcome that is important, but not critical to decision-making.

  • ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; CVD, cardiovascular disease; HT, hypertension; ID, intellectual disability; MCD, major clinical depression; MS, muscular sclerosis; PA, physical activity; PD, Parkinson’s disease; SB, sedentary behaviour; Sch, schizophrenia; SCI, spinal cord injury; Stk, in stroke survivors; T2D, type 2 diabetes.