Table 1

Definitions of sports Specialisation used in sports medicine literature

Construct(s)Operational definition (reference to example studies)
Participates in one sport only
  • Participation in a single sport (specialised) versus multisport participation (not-specialised).33 47

  • Exclusive participation in main sport48 49

Chose to be unisport
  • Quit other sports to focus on main sport8

  • Participation in primary sport to the exclusion of other sports at or before 12 years old50

Year-round participation
  • Train or participate in primary sport more than 8 months out of year51 52

Multiple-item scales
  • Jayanthi 3-item scale3 53:

    1. Primary sport more important than others

    2. Quit other sports to focus on one sport

    3. Train or participate in primary sport more than 8 months out of year

  • Jayanthi 6-item scale54 55

    1. Train more than 75% time in primary sport

    2. Train to improve skill and miss time with friends as a result

    3. Regularly travel out of state for primary sport

    4. Quit other sports to focus on 1 sport

    5. Primary sport more important than others

    6. Train or participate in primary sport more than 8 months out of year