Table 2

Summary of systematic reviews of current evidence through 2018

Outcomes and topicsStudy design
Cross-sectional*ProspectiveCase–controlMixed†
Writing group 1: Impact of sport specialisation on child and athlete performance and development
 Career performance1500
 Task performance700
 Sport-specific skill performance000
Writing group 2: Impact of youth sport specialisation on musculoskeletal injury risk and early discontinuation of sport
 Injury941
 Physical activity, sport participation610
 Biomechanics100
 Subclinical abnormalities identified via imaging110
Writing group 3: Organisational guidelines and recommendations for healthy and safe youth sport participation
 Psychological development, approach4
 Physical development, load8
 Facilities and resources6
 Specialisation8
  • *Studies involving historical survey recall as well as studies assessing prevalent attributes in a cohort are classified as cross-sectional.

  • †Mixed=number of associations or organisations with published statements based on a combination of evidence-based findings and expert opinion.