Table 3

Changes in muscle CSA

Longitudinal studies
Author (year)Participants (N)
TW
CSA region
(units)
Baseline CSA
mean±SD
(95% CI)
Follow-up CSA
mean±SD
(95% CI)
Number of months of
GAHT
% ChangePT (nmol/L)
Base-post GAHT
Elbers et al (1999)4220Thigh (cm2)307±47278±37
(269–287)
271±39
12
36
−9.5
−11.7
<0.001
<0.001
22.0–1.0
22.0–0.9
Wiik (2020)1611Quadriceps (mm2)6193±6795931±671
(5680– 6190)
12−4.2<0.0518.0–0.5
Tack et al (2018)3621Forearm (mm2)
Calf (mm2)
3275±541
4204±1282
3142±574
3828±478
12–31
12–31
−4.1
−8.9
<0.05
>0.05
15.2–8.8
Van Caenegem et al (2015)4149Forearm (mm2)
Tibia (mm2)
3999±746
7742±1361
3664±783
3825±867
7623±1479
7448±1390
12
24
12
24
−8.6
−4.4
−1.5
−3.8
<0.001
<0.001
<0.01
<0.01
19.0–0.5
19.0–0.5
Cross-sectional studies
Author (year)
Participants (N)CSA region
(units)
TW
mean±SD
CM
mean±SD
Number of months of
GAHT
% DifferenceP
T (nmol/L)
TW
TWCM
Lapauw et al (2008)542346Forearm (mm2)
Tibia (mm2)
3500±700
6600±1300
4600±700
8700±1100
48
48
−23.9
−24.1
 <0.001
 <0.001
1.1
Van Caenegem et al (2015)414949Forearm (mm2)
Tibia (mm2)
3999±746
7742±1361
4512±579
8233±1498
Baseline
Baseline
−11.4
−6.0
<0.001
<0.01
19.0
  • Data are from MRI or pQCT.

  • CM, cismen; CSA, cross-sectional area; TW, transwomen.