Table 1

Treatments and treatment categories (ie, classes) for the ‘any improvement’

Categories (ie, classes)Category definitionTreatmentsStudies
EducationEducation consisted of information/advice given by a healthcare practitioner on patellofemoral pain, (aggravating) activity/exercise and management of pain/symptoms. Delivered either face to face or in the form of written materialsEducationRathleff et al, 27 Linschoten et al,25 Collins et al 26
Education+exercise therapy+patellar taping/mobilisationsEducation (as above), combined with resistance exercise (as described below) and application of taping/movement to the patellaEducation+exercise therapy+patellar taping/mobilisationsRathleff et al,27 Linschoten et al,25 Collins et al26
Education+orthosisEducation (as above) in combination with prefabricated orthotics to be placed under the foot in the shoe to support the archEducation+orthosisCollins et al,26 Matthews et al,43 Mills et al44
Education+exercise therapy+patellar treatments+orthosisA combination of these treatments outlined above/belowEducation+exercise therapy+patellar treatments+orthosisCollins et al 26
Wait and seeNo treatment or continuing with current/planned managementWait and seeMills et al,44 Drew et al 32
Exercise therapyResistance exercise, that is, muscles contracting against resistance provided in the form of weights, bands or body/limb weight with the goal of improving muscle strength, endurance or mass. Programmes targeted the lower limb and/or trunk muscles (with/without general aerobic conditioning as warm-up/cooldown). This could be delivered face to face or as a home exercise programmeExercise hip/kneeMatthews et al,43 Baldon et al,30 Giles et al,39 Riel et al,48 Drew et al 32
Exercise hip/knee trunkBaldon et al 30
Exercise hip/knee+blood flow restrictionGiles et al 39
Exercise hip/knee with feedbackRiel et al 48