Table 1

Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

First author, year, country*Participants†N (I, C),‡ women (n)Duration
True control group: no tracker or app component
 Wyke, 2019, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal38 Men, BMI≥27, 30–65 years1113 (560, 553), 03months
 Donoghue, 2018, USA39 17–50 years, first year medical students3-arm N 120 (40, 40), 4110months
 Pope, 2018, USA40 Inactive,§ BMI≥18.5, 18–35 years38 (19, 19); 283months
 Vandelanotte, 2018, Australia41 Inactive,§ BMI 25–40,≥18 years243 (121, 122), 1823months
 Ashton, 2017, Australia42 Men, inactive,§ 18–25 years50 (26, 24), 03months
 Brakenridge, 2016, Australia43 Desk-based office workers153 (66, 87), 703months
 Finkelstein, 2016, Singapore44 21–65 years, office workers (13 worksites)4-arm N 800 (203, 201), 2126months
 Poirier, 2016, USA45 Office workers265 (133, 132), 1751.5months
 Ashe, 2015, Canada46 Women, inactive,¶ 55–70 years25 (13, 12), 256months
 Cadmus-Bertram, 2015, USA47 Women, inactive,** BMI≥25, postmenopause51 (25, 26), 514months
 Martin, 2015, USA48 Inactive,†† 18–69 years, CVD prevention centre3-arm N 48 (16;16); 155 weeks
 Thorndike, 2014, USA49 21–45 years, medical residents104 (52, 52), 541.5months
Active control with a tracker or app component
 Patel, 2019, USA50 BMI≥254-arm N 602 (150, 151), 1756months
 Ellingson, 2019, USA51 Inactive,§ 24–65 years91 (45, 46), 483months
 Zhang, 2019, USA52 Women, 18–35 years, African–American91 (44, 47), 913months
 Patel, 2018, USA53 BMI≥27, university staff4-arm N 209 (44, 65), 16013 weeks
 Robinson, 2018, USA54 Inactive,§ 35–69 years63 (31, 32), 455 weeks
 Fanning, 2017, USA55 Inactive,** 30–54 years4-arm N 116 (29, 87), 933months
 Patel, 2017, USA56 Family members in Framingham Study206 (102, 104), 1123months
 John, 2016, USA57 Inactive,‡‡ AchieveMint users2055 (1027, 1028),NR2 weeks
 King, 2016, USA58 Inactive** or sedentary,§§ ≥45 years4-arm N 95 (22, 27), 362months
 Melton, 2016, USA59 African–American women, 18–24 years69 (28, 41), 692months
 Patel, 2016, USA (I)60 Employees4-arm N 304 (68, 80), 10813 weeks
 Patel, 2016, USA (II)61 Employees/family members of employees4-arm N 288 (64, 100), 12413 weeks
 Walsh, 2016, Ireland62 Healthy adults58 (29, 29), 405 weeks
 Cowdery, 2015, USA63 18–69 years40 (20, 20), 343months
 Wang, 2015, USA64 Inactive,§ BMI≥25, 18–69 years67 (33, 34), 611.5months
 Glynn, 2014, UK65 Adults90 (45, 45), 582months
  • *Ordered by study year.

  • †Participant eligibility criteria, organised by gender, level of physical activity, BMI, age, other characteristics, where reported.

  • ‡In studies with more than two arms, the intervention of interest and control groups were selected as per defined in the methods.

  • §<150–300 min/week of MVPA.

  • ¶<30min/week MVPA.

  • **<60 min/week MVPA.

  • ††<90 min/week MVPA.

  • ‡‡<70th percentile for mean daily steps in AchieveMint platform.

  • §§Sitting time ≥10 hours/day.

  • app, smartphone application; BMI, body mass index; C, control; CVD, cardiovascular disease; I, intervention; MVPA, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; NR, not reported.