Table 3

Adverse events reported as number of people with NS-LBP experiencing adverse events and number of events classified from grade 1–5

Study (Author, year)Category of interventionAdverse events
n%AE 1 (mild), nAE 2 (moderate), nAE 3 (severe), nAE 4 (disabling), nAE 5 (death), n
Shin, 2013Acupuncture00
Mayer, 2005Education0000000
Traeger, 2019Education00
Mayer, 2005Exercise0000000
Mayer, 2005Heat wrap0000000
Nadler, 2002Heat wrap6.2
Nadler, 2003bHeat wrap15
Nadler, 2003aHeat wrap11.1
Santilli, 2006Manual therapy00
Takamoto, 2015Manual therapy00
Takamoto, 2015Manual therapy00
von Heymann, 2013Manual therapy00
Berry, 1988Muscle relaxant2542,4
Hindle, 1972Muscle relaxant0000000
Ketenci, 2005Muscle relaxant18; 10; 5; 5*000
Ketenci, 2005Muscle relaxant28; 3; 15*000
Ralph, 2008Muscle relaxant74
Serfer, 2009Muscle relaxant69
Serfer, 2009Muscle relaxant85
Tuzun, 2003Muscle relaxant4
Amlie, 1987NSAIDs18131461
Dreiser, 2003NSAIDs1512.1†000
Dreiser, 2003NSAIDs1713.9†000
Eken, 2014NSAIDs48.74
Goldie, 1968NSAIDs832
Miki, 2018NSAIDs57.9†
Nadler, 2002NSAIDs10.4
Nadler, 2003bNSAIDs25
Nadler, 2003aNSAIDs00
Sae-Jung, 2016NSAIDs412
Shin, 2013NSAIDs00
Szpalski, 1994NSAIDs12.7
Veenema, 2000NSAIDs8
Videman, 1984NSAIDs1954.3
von Heymann, 2013NSAIDs00
Eken, 2014Opioid715.561
Veenema, 2000Opioid41
Videman, 1984Opioid2365.7
Eken, 2014Paracetamol48.74
Miki, 2018Paracetamol11.6†
Nadler, 2002Paracetamol4.4
Williams, 2014Paracetamol9918.0†
Williams, 2014Paracetamol9918.0†
Eskin, 2014Steroids00000
Sae-Jung, 2016Steroids1546.9†
Amlie, 1987Inert treatment24171982
Berry, 1988Inert treatment1222.6
Dreiser, 2003Inert treatment2519.8†000
Eskin, 2014Inert treatment00000
Goldie, 1968Inert treatment520
Hindle, 1972Inert treatment0000000
Ketenci, 2005Inert treatment22; 4*000
Nadler, 2003bInert treatment12
Nadler, 2003aInert treatment00
Nadler, 2003aInert treatment00
Ralph, 2008Inert treatment26
Santilli, 2006Inert treatment00
Serfer, 2009Inert treatment34
Szpalski, 1994Inert treatment
Takamoto, 2015Inert treatment00
Traeger, 2019Inert treatment00
Tuzun, 2003Inert treatment4
von Heymann, 2013Inert treatment00
Williams, 2014Inert treatment9818.0
  • All references of included studies are provided in online supplemental C.

  • *Percentage of people with NS-LBP reporting specific adverse events (eg, headache, diarrhea, dyspepsia).

  • †Percentages were reported slightly different in the primary studies (unclear about randomised people with NS-LBP).

  • NS-LBP, non-specific low back pain.