Table 2

League table presenting all network meta-analysis estimates of pain outcome at immediate-term (1 week)

Inert treatment
0.13 (−0.62, 0.87)Acupuncture
0.20 (−0.63, 1.02)0.07 (−1.04, 1.17)Education
1.40 (0.40, 2.41)1.28 (0.04, 2.51)1.21 (0.31, 2.11)Exercise
1.38 (0.17, 2.60)1.25 (−0.16, 2.67)1.19 (0.17, 2.20)−0.02 (−1.03, 0.99)Heat wrap
0.72 (0.04, 1.40)0.59 (−0.38, 1.55)0.52 (−0.44, 1.48)−0.69 (−1.67, 0.29)−0.67 (−1.92, 0.58)Manual therapy
0.55 (−0.12, 1.23)0.42 (−0.58, 1.43)0.36 (−0.71, 1.42)−0.85 (−2.07, 0.36)−0.83 (−2.22, 0.56)−0.17 (−1.12, 0.79)Muscle relaxant
0.53 (0.09, 0.97)0.40 (−0.35, 1.15)0.33 (−0.58, 1.25)−0.88 (−1.93, 0.18)−0.85 (−2.12, 0.41)−0.19 (−0.89, 0.51)−0.02 (−0.83, 0.78)NSAIDs
0.86 (0.10, 1.62)0.73 (−0.25, 1.71)0.67 (−0.44, 1.77)−0.54 (−1.77, 0.68)−0.52 (−1.93, 0.89)0.15 (−0.80, 1.09)0.31 (−0.71, 1.33)0.33 (−0.32, 0.98)Opioids
0.45 (−0.15, 1.06)0.32 (−0.57, 1.22)0.26 (−0.75, 1.26)−0.95 (−2.10, 0.19)−0.93 (−2.27, 0.41)−0.26 (−1.11, 0.58)−0.10 (−1.00, 0.81)−0.08 (−0.63, 0.48)−0.41 (−1.15, 0.34)Paracetamol
  • Interventions are reported in alphabetical order from left to right except for reference treatment (inert treatment). The estimate is in the cell where the column-defining treatment and the row-defining treatment intersect. For efficacy SMD>0 favours the row-defining treatment whereas SMD<0 favours the column-defining treatment. Significant results are given in bold.

  • NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; SMD, standardised mean difference.