Table 4

Self-reported adverse events

Adverse event*Heel lifts group
(n=50)†
Eccentric exercise group
(n=50)†
RR‡P valueARI (%)NNT-H‡
Developed new pain23 (46)22 (44)1.05 (0.68 to 1.61)0.8412.0 (−16.9 to 20.7)50 (−6 to 5)
 Upper body0 (0)3 (6)UTDUTD−6.0 (−16.2 to 2.2)−17 (−6 to 47)
 Lower back6 (12)3 (6)2.00 (0.53 to 7.56)0.3076.0 (−6.1 to 18.4)17 (−17 to 5)
 Hip3 (6)2 (4)1.50 (0.26 to 8.60)0.6492.0 (−8.3 to 12.6)50 (−12 to 8)
 Knee6 (12)7 (14)0.86 (0.31 to 2.37)0.767−2.0 (−15.8 to 11.8)−50 (−6 to 9)
 Lower leg8 (16)9 (18)0.89 (0.37 to 2.11)0.790−2.0 (−16.9 to 13.0)−50 (−6 to 8)
 Foot or ankle§7 (14)9 (18)0.78 (0.31 to 1.93)0.587−4.0 (−18.6 to 10.7)−25 (−5 to 9)
Blister/skin condition2 (4)1 (2)2.00 (0.19 to 21.36)0.5662.0 (−7.0 to 11.6)50 (−14 to 9)
  • Some participants reported more than one adverse event. The heel lifts group was considered the experimental group for all calculations.

  • *Values are the number of participantswho reported at least one adverse event.

  • †Values are expressed as n (%) for each group.

  • ‡Values in parentheses represent the 95% CI.

  • §Excludes skin conditions.

  • ARI, absolute risk increase; NNT-H, number needed to harm; RR, relative risk; ; UTD, unable to determine.