Table 4

Individual study results and pooled effects for primary outcome of disability*

SourceStudy designFollow-up time-point (months)Number of participantsMD (95% CI)†Weight, %
General population
Exercise vs control (short-term)
Haufe et al 27 RCT51892.36 (−7.11 to 2.39) 100
Exercise and education vs control (short-term)
Lønn et al 32 RCT581‡−9.00 (−17.91 to −0.09)49.28
Soukup et al 36 RCT569−1.00 (−9.70 to 7.70)50.72
Pooled effect: I2=0%4.94 (−12.78 to 2.90)
Exercise and education vs control (long-term)
Chaléat-Valayer et al 8 RCT18280−4.60 (−8.37 to −0.83)52.69
Glomsrød et al 25 ; Lønn et al 32 RCT1273−15.00 (−25.56 to −4.44)8.89
Soukup et al 37 ; Soukup et al 36 RCT1269−6.00 (−16.85 to 4.85)8.43
Warming et al 40 (TTPT) C-RCT (11 clusters)1249−6.74 (−12.14 to −1.34)30.00
Pooled effect: I2=3.41%6.28 (−9.51 to −3.06)
Education vs control (short-term)
Irvine et al 29 (FitBack program) RCT4288−7.10 (−11.98 to −2.22)25.21
Irvine et al 29 (alternative care) RCT4294−4.30 (−9.33 to 0.73)24.47
Menzel et al 33 RCT3242.00 (−4.72 to 8.72)17.68
Tuchin 38 RCT661−5.60 (−15.11 to 3.91)10.81
Yassi et al 41 (arm B) C-RCT (9 clusters)6682.80 (−6.79 to 12.39)10.67
Yassi et al 41 (arm C) C-RCT (9 clusters)6691.80 (−7.52 to 11.12)11.15
Pooled effect: I2=0%2.59 (−6.15 to 0.96)
Education vs control (long-term)
Warming et al 40 (TT) C-RCT (11 clusters)12480.18 (−6.12 to 6.47)50.04
Yassi et al 41 (arm B) C-RCT (9 clusters)12630.60 (−9.30 to 10.50)21.44
Yassi et al 41 (arm C) C-RCT (9 clusters)1265−2.00 (−11.08 to 7.08)25.52
Pooled effect: I2=0%0.29 (−4.87 to 4.30)
Ergonomics and education vs control (short-term)
Ijzelenberg et al 28 C-RCT (18 clusters)6192 2.08 (−1.87 to 6.03) 100
Ergonomics and education vs control (long-term)
Ijzelenberg et al 28 C-RCT (18 clusters)12184 1.25 (−3.08 to 5.58) 100
Pregnant population
Exercise vs control (short-term)
Eggen et al 21 RCT82402.91 (−7.06 to 1.24) 100
  • A negative value of the mean difference estimate represents an effect in favour of the intervention group.

  • Short-term indicates follow-up assessment of <12 months.

  • Long-term indicates follow-up assessment of 12 months or more.

  • *Only studies providing results that could be converted to a 0–100 points scale are presented.

  • †Value presented on 0–100 scale.

  • ‡Only baseline data were available.

  • C-RCT, cluster-randomised controlled trial; MD, mean difference; RCT, randomised controlled trial; TT, transfer technique; TTPT, transfer technique and physical activity.