Table 2

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Outcome measureGroupAdjusted mean difference†*P value
Heel lifts*Eccentric exercise*
VISA-A‡
 Baseline57.0 (15.4)53.3 (17.1)
 2 weeks69.3 (14.1)58.9 (19.0)
 6 weeks71.9 (16.8)64.2 (20.3)
 12 weeks83.0 (16.9)70.7 (22.2) 9.61 (1.83 to 17.40) 0.016
Achilles tendon AP diameter, mm
 Baseline8.61 (1.88)9.83 (2.12)
 12 weeks8.31 (2.23)8.98 (2.32)3.82 (−1.43 to 9.08)0.865§
Achilles tendon integrity: AFS, %‡
 Baseline76.3 (17.6)71.7 (19.6)
 12 weeks74.1 (18.2)69.7 (21.0)3.41 (−6.34 to 13.14)0.464
Achilles tendon integrity: DIS, %
 Baseline23.7 (17.6)28.3 (19.6)
 12 weeks26.9 (16.6)30.0 (28.5)−2.18 (−14.15 to 9.78)0.841¶
Severity of pain (VAS), mm
 Baseline56.1 (24.6)60.1 (21.9)
 2 weeks40.5 (26.2)49.3 (25.6)
 6 weeks24.2 (23.8)39.3 (29.1)
 12 weeks18.1 (23.2)37.6 (31.1)19.18 (−31.00 to −7.36) 0.002
EQ-5D-5L, Index
 Baseline0.76 (0.11)0.73 (0.11)
 2 weeks0.81 (0.10)0.77 (0.15)
 6 weeks0.79 (0.15)0.76 (0.21)
 12 weeks0.87 (0.13)0.81 (0.12) 0.10 (0.02 to 0.18) 0.044
EQ-5D-5L, VAS
 Baseline76.1 (12.7)77.4 (15.4)
 2 weeks82.5 (10.8)79.9 (14.8)
 6 weeks80.0 (14.3)80.0 (17.9)
 12 weeks84.9 (11.4)82.8 (13.2)−0.89 (−2.21 to 0.44)0.189**
Self-reported physical activity (PAR), kilocalories per day††
 Baseline3440 (2916 to 4118)3650 (3197 to 4497)
 2 weeks3230 (2662.9 to 4065)3377 (3007 to 4526.2)
 6 weeks1846 (1669.1 to 2287)1855 (1653.4 to 2348.1)
 12 weeks1856.5 (1568 to 2232)1908 (1558 to 2417)0.799‡‡
Calf muscle function, repetitions
 Baseline18.9 (10.6)17.9 (11.2)
 12 weeks20.1 (8.8)21.6 (10.3)−1.76 (−5.65 to 2.13)0.624¶
  • EQ-5D-5L, EuroQol 5 dimension 5 level version questionnaire, (scores on the EQ-5D-5L index range from <0 (worse than dead) to 0 (dead) to 1 (full health); scores on the EQ-5D-5L VAS range from 0 (worst imaginable health state) to 100 (best imaginable health state)). PAR. Values are expressed as mean (SD) and postmultiple imputation unless stated otherwise.

  • Bold values denote statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level.

  • *Values are presented prior to data transformation.

  • †Values in parentheses represent the 95% CI.

  • ‡Data transformation was not applied.

  • §Values expressed postdata transformation (participant 16 removed (outlier) from non-normally distributed data).

  • ¶Values expressed postdata transformation (square root transformation applied to non-normally distributed data).

  • **Values expressed postdata transformation (participant 83 removed (outlier) from non-normally distributed data).

  • ††Values expressed as median (IQR), where IQR is expressed as Q1–Q3.

  • ‡‡Mann-Whitney U test performed as non-normally distributed data was unableto be transformed.

  • AFS, aligned fibrillar structure; AP, anterior–posterior; DIS, disorganised structure; VAS, Visual Analogue Scale; VISA-A, Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment–Achilles.