Table 3

Individual study results and pooled effects for primary outcome of pain intensity*

SourceStudy designFollow-up time-point (months)Number of participantsMD (95% CI)†Weight, %
General population
Exercise vs control (short-term)
Haufe et al 27 RCT5189−6. 6 (−13.38 to 0.18)15.08
Barene et al 17 C-RCT (6 clusters)343−1.0 (−10.70 to 8.70)7.70
Barene et al 17 C-RCT (6 clusters)3462.0 (−6.75 to 10.75)9.38
Pedersen et al 34 C-RCT (57 cluster)5334−5.33 (−7.94 to −2.72)67.84
Pooled effect: I2=1.78%4.50 (−7.26 to −1.74)
Exercise and education vs control (short-term)
Lønn et al 32 RCT581‡−8.0 (−14.84 to −1.16)41.83
Soukup et al 36 RCT569−1.0 (−8.79 to 6.79)38.42
Kamioka et al 30 C-RCT (4 clusters)3349.0 (−5.95 to 23.95)19.75
Pooled effect: I2=10.23%1.95 (−10.09 to 6.18)
Exercise and education vs control (long-term)
Chaléat-Valayer et al 8 RCT18280−0.50 (−5.42 to 4.42)43.76
Glomsrød et al 25; Lønn et al 32 RCT1273−11.00 (−20.18 to −1.82)20.44
Soukup et al 37; Soukup et al 36 RCT1269−6.00 (−15.97 to 3.97)18.01
Warming et al 40 C-RCT (11 clusters)1249−4.60 (−14.64 to 5.44)17.80
Pooled effect: I2=0%4.37 (−9.16 to 0.43)
Education vs control (short-term)
Donaldson et al 18 RCT3172‡−1.54 (−5.97 to 2.89)24.49
Irvine et al 29 (FitBack program) RCT4288−4.20 (−7.04 to −1.36)37.15
Irvine et al 29 (alternative care) RCT4294−0.90 (−4.16 to 2.36)33.30
Menzel et al 33 RCT3238.50 (−3.72 to 20.72)5.07
Pooled effect: I2=17.04%1.81 (−4.68 to 1.07)
Education vs control (long-term)
Jensen et al 7 (SMI) C-RCT (19 clusters)24782.00 (−8.93 to 12.93)48.41
Warming et al 40 (TT) C-RCT (11 clusters)12481.40 (−9.88 to 12.68)51.59
Pooled effect: I2=0% 1.71 (−6.14 to 9.56)
Ergonomics vs control (short-term)
Driessen et al 20 C-RCT (37 clusters)6552 1.40 (−3.28 to 6.08) 100
Ergonomics vs control (long-term)
Driessen et al 20 C-RCT (37 clusters)12538 2.00 (−2.74 to 6.74) 100
Ergonomics and education vs control (short-term)
Ijzelenberg et al 28 C-RCT (18 clusters)6192 1.00 (−6.93 to 8.93) 100
Ergonomics and education vs control (long-term)
Ijzelenberg et al 28 C-RCT (18 clusters)121840.00 (−8.38 to 8.38)63.82
Jensen et al 7 (TTI) C-RCT (19 clusters)24820.00 (−11.14 to 11.14)36.18
Pooled effect: I2=0% 0.00 (−6.70 to 6.70)
Pregnant population
Exercise vs control (short-term)
Eggen et al, 21 RCT8240−3.00 (−9.36 to 3.36)36.92
Garshasbi and Faghih Zadeh 23 RCT3212−2.52 (−7.38 to 2.34)63.08
Pooled effect: I2=0%2.70 (−6.56 to 1.17)
Children
Exercise and education vs control (short-term)
Fanucchi et al 22 RCT670 0.00 (-11.68 to 11.68) 100
  • A negative value of the MD estimate represents an effect in favour of the intervention group.

  • Short-term indicates follow-up assessment of <12 months.

  • Long-term indicates follow-up assessment of 12 months or more.

  • *Only studies providing results that could be converted to a 0–100 scale are presented.

  • †Value presented on 0–100 scale.

  • ‡Only baseline data were available.

  • C-RCT, cluster-randomised controlled trial; MD, mean difference; RCT, randomised controlled trial; SMI, stress management intervention; TT, transfer technique; TTI, transfer technique intervention; TTPT, transfer technique and physical activity.