Table 4

Descriptive statistics for immediate memory, delayed recall and concentration

nMeanSDMedian1Q3QMinMax
English preference
Immediate Memory
 Form 151820.983.1021.00192310 (n=1)30 (n=1)
 Form 245722.462.7823.00212412 (n=1)29 (n=2)
 Form 350720.503.2521.0018236 (n=1)27 (n=10)
Non-English preference
Immediate Memory
 Form 113620.133.6020.50182310 (n=1)30 (n=1)
 Form 212921.203.6922.0019245 (n=1)30 (n=1)
 Form 312418.574.0819.0017226 (n=1)27 (n=1)
Delayed Recall
 Form 16547.031.777.00680 (n=1)10 (n=44)
 Form 25867.481.708.006.7592 (n=4)10 (n=72)
 Form 36306.551.847.00580 (n=1)10 (n=30)
Concentration
 English preference14884.230.935.00451 (n=11)5 (n=750)
 Non-English preference3923.551.134.00340 (n=2)5 (n=93)
  • Raw scores are shown.

  • Athletes who were unable to recall at least one word on each trial were excluded from memory results due to suspected lack of effort/administrator error during immediate recall.

  • 1Q, 1st quartile; 3Q, 3rd quartile.