Table 3

Overview of included studies (n=40)

Author (year)Total sample size, neck pain definitionSex (n female)Age mean (SD)Intervention durationTiming of follow-up assessmentPain, disability outcomeIntervention details
Alpayci and Ilter 201766 65, NTNP53 FSTRE: 33 (9), NOTR: 33 (10)3 months3 monthsVASDaily exercises (3×30 s)
Andersen et al 201354 118, NSNSP118 FSTRE: 36 (9), NOTR: 35 (9)20 weeks20 weeksVAS3×1 hour session per week
Andersen et al 201467 47, NSNSP37 FSTRE: 44 (13), NOTR: 45 (11)10 weeks10 weeksVAS3×20 min session
Andersen et al 201268 158, NSNSP?STRE: 46 (10), NOTR: 46 (10)20 weeks20 weeksVAS1 hour per week
Andersen et al 200869 42, NTNP42 FSTRE: 44(9), PRES: 45(9), NOTR: 42 (8)10 weeks10 weeksVAS3×20 min session
Beinert 201370 34, SCNP?TOTAL: 23 (3)5 weeks5 weeksNRSthree sessions per week, at least 15 min
Bobos et al 201671 67, INP47 FMOTO: 38 (13), STRE: 40 (13), NOTR: 39 (13)7 weeks7 weeksNRS, NDItwo sessions, 30 to 40 min
Caputo et al 201772 35, WRNP27 FSTRE: 43 (41-45), STRT: 42 (38.5–44)7 weeks7 weeksVAS, NDI45 min, 2 sessions per week
Chiu et al 200573 145, NTNP100 FSTRE+MOTO: 43 (10), NOTR: 44 (10)6 weeks6 weeksNRS, NPNPQtwo sessions per week
Cramer et al 201374 51, NSNP63 FYOGAP: 46 (11), STRE+STRT: 50 (10)9 weeks9 weeksVAS, NDIone session a week, 10 min at home daily
de Araujo et al 201875 64, MNP14 FYOGAP: 49 (12), NOTR: 49 (12)12 weeks90 daysNPS, NDItwo sessions per week, 1 hour
Dellve et al 201176 60, NP60 FSTRE:<44: n=7, 45–54: n=9,>54: n=7,
NOTR:<44: n=6, 45–54: n=10,>54: n=4
1 month1 monthNRS6 days per week
Dunleavy et al 201677 56, MNP49 FTOTAL: 56 (9)12 weeks12 weeksNRS, NDIone session per week
Duray et al. 201840, NSNP32 FPROP: 44 (7), NOTR: 46 (6)3 weeks3 weeksNPI, NDIthree times per day, sets of 10
Evans et al 201278 270, NSNP194 FSTRE: 49 (10), PRES: 46 (10)12 weeks12 weeksNRS, NDItwenty 1 hour sessions
Falla et al 200840 37, NP37 FMOTO: 38 (10), STRE: 38 (10)6 weeks7 weeksVAS, NDIone 30 min session per week, 10 to 20 min training daily
Falla et al 201379 46, NTNP46 FSTRE+MOTO: 39 (9), NOTR: 39 (9)8 weeks8 weeksNRS, NDIone 30 min session per week, 10 to 20 min training daily
Gallego Izquierdo et al 201680 28, NSNP18 FMOTO: 28 (6), PROP: 30 (7)2 months2 monthsVAS, NDIsix sessions+20 min per day
Ghaderi et al 201781 40, NTNP?MOTO: 36 (3), NOTR: 36 (3)10 weeks10 weeksVAS, NDI10 sessions
Griffiths et al 200953 74, MNP46 FNOTR: 52 (14), MOTO: 51 (14)6 weeks6 weeksNPADfour 30 min sessions+exercises 5–10 times daily
Hakkinen et al 200882 101, NSNP91 FSTRT: 40 (10), STRE+STRT: 41 (9)12 months12 monthsVAS, NDIweekly session for 6 weeks, thereafter bimonthly
Hoving et al 201283 123, NSNP77 FMULTI: 46 (12), CON 46 (11)6 weeks6 weeksNRS, NDIweekly session
Javanshir et al 201584 60, NTNP40 FMOTO: 37 (4), STRE: 36 (5)6 weeks6 weeksVAS, NDIweekly session, 30 min
Jordan et al 201185 123, NP108 FTOTAL: 46 (11)6 months6 monthsVAS, NPAD18 sessions
Jull et al 200965 46, NP46 FMOTO: 40 (12), STRE: 37 (10)6 weeks6 weeksNRS, NDIone session per week, twice a day home practice
Jull et al 200286 100, NP80 FSTRE+MOTO: 37 (2), NOTR: 37 (2)6 weeks6 weeksVAS, NPNPQ8 to 12 sessions over 6 weeks, 30 min per session
Karlsson et al 201487 57, NSP57 FSTRE: 46 (IQR: 40,50), STRT: 42 (IQR 33,47)12 months12 monthsNRS, NDIfirst 8 weeks supervised, then independent
Khosrokiani et al 201888 30, NSNP30 FMOTO: 36 (6) NOTR: 38 (6)6 months6 monthsVAS, NDI30 min/day, 3 days/week
Kjellman 200289 49, NP35 FPRES: 47 (9), NOTR: 43 (12)8 weeks8 weeksVAS, NDItwo sessions per week
Lange et al 201390 55, NSP?STRE+MOTO: 31 (range 29–36),
NOTR: 34 (range 30–36)
24 weeks24 weeksNRSthree times 20 min per week
Lansinger et al 200744 139, NSNP86 FYOGAP: 45 (12), STRE: 43 (1)3 months3 monthsVAS, NDI1 to 2 times per week, 1 hour
Lauche et al 201691 114, INP91FYOGAP: 52 (11) PRES: 47 (12), NOTR: 49 (12)12 weeks12 weeksVAS, NDIapproximately 1 hour session, every week
Li et al 201792 109, NTNP109 FSTRE: 35 (9), NOTR: 34 (8)6 weeks6 weeksVAS, NDIthree training sessions per week
Michalsen et al 201293 77, NTNP67 FYOGAP: 48 (11), PRES: 48 (12)9 weeks9 weeksVAS, NDI90 min session once per week
O'Leary et al 201294 60, NP35 FSTRE: 38 (13), MOTO: 38 (13), ROM: 38 (13)10 week10 weeksVAS, NDIeight supervised sessions, exercises twice daily at home
Ravi et al 201695 50, NSNP32 FTOTAL: 30 (11)4 weeks4 weeksNRS, NDIunclear
Rendant et al 201196 65, NTNP53 FPRES: 33 (9), NOTR: 33 (10)3 months3 monthsNRS3×30 s per day
Tunwattanapong et al 201697 96, NP77 FSTRT: 34 (9), NOTR: 37 (9)4 weeks4 weeksNRS, NPNPQtwo sessions per day, 5 days per week, 10 to 15 min
Viljanen et al 200398 393, NSNP393 FSTRE: 45 (7), NOTR: 44 (7)12 weeks12 weeksNRSthree times per week, 30 min
Ylinen et al 200351 179, NSNP179 FSTRE: 46 (6), NOTR: 46 (5)12 months12 monthsVAS, NDIInstitutional, supervised, and independent training
  • ?, unknown. Neck pain definitions used; Exercise interventions: MOTO, motor control; F, female; INP, idiopathic neck pain; MNP, mechanical neck pain; NOT, no treatment; NP, neck pain; NSNP, non-specific neck pain; NSNSP, non-specific neck and shoulder pain; NSP, neck and shoulder pain; NTNP, non-traumatic neck pain; PRES, prescribed physical activity; PROP, proprioceptive; SCNP, subclinical neck pain; STRE, strengthening; STRE+MOTO, strengthening and motor control; STRE+STRT, strengthening and stretching; STRT, stretching; TOTAL, age characteristics for total sample, when group characteristics were not available; WRNP, work-related neck pain; YOGAP, yoga/Pilates/Tai Chi/Qigong.