Table 2

Risk of bias assessment using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale

Author (year)1234567891011PEDro sum score
Alpayci and Ilter 201766 LowLowHighLowHighHighLowHighHighLowLow6
Andersen et al 201354 LowLowLowLowHighHighHighLowLowLowLow8
Andersen et al 201467 LowLowHighLowHighHighLowHighLowLowHigh7
Andersen et al 201268 LowLowHighLowHighHighHighLowLowLowLow7
Andersen et al 200869 LowLowHighLowHighHighHighLowLowLowLow7
Beinert 201370 LowLowHighHighHighHighLowLowLowHighLow6
Bobos et al 201671 LowLowLowLowHighHighHighLowLowHighHigh6
Caputo et al 201772 LowLowLowLowHighHighLowHighLowLowLow8
Chiu et al 200573 LowLowLowLowHighHighLowHighLowLowLow8
Cramer et al 201374 LowLowLowLowHighHighLowLowLowLowLow9
de Araujo et al 201875 LowLowLowLowHighHighLowLowLowLowLow9
Dellve et al 201176 LowLowLowLowHighHighHighHighHighLowLow6
Dunleavy et al 201677 LowLowHighLowHighHighHighHighHighLowLow5
Duray et al 2018LowHighHighLowHighHighHighHighHighLowLow4
Evans et al 201278 LowLowLowLowHighHighLowLowLowLowLow9
Falla et al 200840 LowLowHighLowHighHighLowLowLowLowLow8
Falla et al 200641 LowLowHighLowHighHighLowLowHighLowLow7
Falla et al 200742 LowLowLowLowHighHighLowLowLowLowLow8
Falla et al 201379 LowLowLowLowHighHighLowLowLowLowLow8
Gallego Izquierdo et al 201680 LowLowLowLowHighHighLowLowLowLowLow9
Ghaderi et al 201781 LowLowHighLowHighHighHighLowHighLowLow6
Griffiths et al 200953 LowLowHighLowHighHighLowLowLowLowLow7
Häkkinen et al 200882 LowLowHighLowHighHighLowLowLowLowLow8
Hoving et al 201283 LowLowLowLowHighHighLowLowLowLowLow8
Javanshir et al 201584 LowLowHighLowHighHighLowLowLowLowLow8
Jordan et al 201185 LowLowLowLowHighHighHighLowLowLowLow8
Jull et al 200965 LowLowLowLowHighHighLowLowHighLowLow8
Jull et al 200286 LowLowLowLowHighHighLowLowLowLowLow9
Karlsson et al 201487 LowLowHighLowHighHighHighHighHighLowLow5
Khosrokiani et al 201888 LowLowHighLowHighHighHighLowHighLowLow6
Kjellman 200289 LowLowLowLowHighHighHighLowHighLowLow7
Lange et al 201390 LowLowLowLowHighHighLowLowLowLowLow9
Lansinger et al 2013LowLowLowLowHighHighHighLowLowLowLow8
Lansinger et al 200744 LowLowLowLowHighHighHighLowLowLowLow8
Lauche et al 201691 LowLowLowLowHighHighLowHighLowLowLow8
Li et al 201792 LowLowLowLowHighHighLowLowLowLowLow9
Michalsen et al 201293 LowLowLowLowHighHighLowHighLowLowLow7
Nikander et al 200645 LowLowHighLowHighHighHighLowHighLowHigh5
O'Leary et al 201294 LowLowHighLowHighHighLowLowLowLowLow8
Ravi et al 201695 LowLowHighLowHighHighHighLowHighLowLow6
Rendant et al 201196 LowLowLowLowHighHighHighLowLowLowLow8
Tunwattanapong et al 201697 LowLowLowLowHighHighLowLowLowLowLow9
Viljanen et al 200398 LowLowLowLowHighHighLowLowLowLowLow9
Ylinen et al 200351 LowLowHighLowHighHighLowLowLowLowLow8
  • Criteria: (1) Eligibility criteria specified; (2) Subjects randomly allocated to groups; (3) Concealed allocation; (4) Groups were similar at baseline; (5) Blinding of all subjects; (6) Blinding of all therapists; (7) Blinding of all assessors; (8) Measures obtained from more than 85% of subjects allocated to groups; (9) Subjects received treatment or control condition as allocated, or intention-to-treat analysis; (10) Between-group statistical comparisons reported for at least one outcome; (11) Both point measures and measures of variability were reported.

  • high, high risk of bias; low, low risk of bias, sum score is sum of 'low' count per reference.