Table 4

Summary of study characteristics, heterogeneity and inconsistency, and treatment rankings

Network
Pain intensity Pain-related disability
Number of studies3829
Number of treatments1211
Number of pairwise comparisons5037
Number of designs2119
Heterogeneity I2 0.91 (0.89 to 0.93)0.88 (0.83 to 0.91)
Tests for inconsistency
Qtotal <0.0001<0.0001
Qwithin <0.00010.0005
Qbetween <0.0001<0.0001
P-scores
Strength+motor 0.7050.479
Proprioceptive 0.7040.485
Strength+stretch 0.6860.602
Motor control 0.6640.739
YPTCQ 0.6270.888
Stretch 0.6000.622
Strength 0.5920.656
ROM 0.4850.388
Prescribed PA 0.3790.156
Balance 0.282N/A
Combined 0.1860.286
No treatment 0.0900.200
  • PA, physical activity; ROM, range of motion; YPTCQ, yoga/Pilates/Tai Chi/Qigong.