Table 4

Sensitivity and additional analysis of the association of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 outcomes and COVID-19 related death associated with study patients who engaged in physical activities according to exercise guideline or MET score

EventsCohortN (%)ExposureAdjusted RR (95% CI)
COVID-19Online supplemental table S2; Propensity score matched cohort A95/2649 (3.6)Insufficient aerobic and muscle strengthening1.0 (ref)*
69/2649 (2.6)Aerobic and muscle strengthening0.73 (0.54 to 0.99)
COVID-19Online supplemental table S5; cohort C1087/33 263 (3.3)Inactive (MET, 0)1.0 (ref)†
344/12 650 (2.7)Insufficiently active (MET, 1–<500)0.91 (0.79 to 1.04)
249/9689 (2.6)Active (MET, 500–<1000)0.78 (0.66 to 0.92)
615/20 793 (3.0)Highly active (MET, ≥1000)0.94 (0.85 to 1.05)
COVID-19Online supplemental table S6; Propensity score matched cohort C991/29 993 (3.3)Low physical activity (MET, 0–500)1.0 (ref)†
852/29 993 (2.8)High physical activity (MET, ≥500)0.90 (0.83 to 0.99)
COVID-19Online supplemental table S8; cohort D803/22 811 (3.5)Inactive (MET, 0)1.0 (ref)†
1641/50 052 (3.3)Insufficiently active (MET, 1–<500)0.89 (0.82 to 0.97)
816/25 932 (3.2)Active (MET, 500–<1000)0.85 (0.75 to 0.96)
622/19 973 (3.1)Highly active (MET, ≥1000)0.85 (0.74 to 0.99)
COVID-19Online supplemental table S9; propensity score matched cohort D429/11 930 (3.6)Low physical activity (MET, 0–500)1.0 (ref)†
372/11 930 (3.1)High physical activity (MET, ≥500)0.87 (0.76 to 0.99)
Severe COVID-19‡Online supplemental table S2; propensity score matched cohort A21/2649 (0.79)Insufficient aerobic and muscle strengthening1.0 (ref)*
9/2649 (0.34)Aerobic and muscle strengthening0.43 (0.20 to 0.95)
Severe COVID-19‡Online supplemental table S3; cohort B273/1293 (21.1)Insufficient aerobic and muscle strengthening1.0 (ref)*
25/150 (16.7)Muscle strengthening only0.87 (0.58 to 1.26)
109/561 (19.4)Aerobic only0.90 (0.72 to 1.10)
39/291 (13.4)Aerobic and muscle strengthening0.66 (0.47 to 0.90)
Severe COVID-19‡Online supplemental table S5; cohort C239/33 263 (0.72)Inactive (MET, 0)1.0 (ref)†
58/12 650 (0.46)Insufficiently active (MET, 1–<500)0.78 (0.53 to 1.12)
39/9689 (0.40)Active (MET, 500–<1000)0.62 (0.43 to 0.90)
110/20 793 (0.53)Highly active (MET, ≥1000)0.79 (0.61 to 1.03)
Severe COVID-19‡Online supplemental table S6; propensity score matched cohort C209/29 993 (0.70)Low physical activity (MET, 0–500)1.0 (ref)†
146/29 993 (0.49)High physical activity (MET, ≥500)0.77 (0.63 to 0.95)
Severe COVID-19‡Online supplemental table S8; cohort D75/22 811 (0.33)Inactive (MET, 0)1.0 (ref)†
109/50 052 (0.22)Insufficiently active (MET, 1–<500)0.65 (0.47 to 0.86)
49/25 932 (0.19)Active (MET, 500–<1000)0.54 (0.35 to 0.79)
44/19 973 (0.22)Highly active (MET, ≥1000)0.66 (0.45 to 0.96)
Severe COVID-19‡Online supplemental table S9; propensity score matched cohort D40/11 930 (0.28)Low physical activity (MET, 0–500)1.0 (ref)†
24/11 930 (0.20)High physical activity (MET, ≥500)0.58 (0.35 to 0.99)
Severe COVID-19‡Online supplemental table S10; cohort E75/803 (9.3)Inactive (MET, 0)1.0 (ref)†
109/1641 (6.6)Insufficiently active (MET, 1–<500)0.73 (0.53 to 0.99)
49/816 (6.0)Active (MET, 500–<1000)0.68 (0.44 to 0.98)
44/622 (7.1)Highly active (MET, ≥1000)0.74 (0.48 to 1.12)
COVID-19 related deathOnline supplemental table S2; propensity score matched cohort A3/2649 (0.11)Insufficient aerobic and muscle strengthening1.0 (ref)*
1/2619 (0.04)Aerobic and muscle strengthening0.34 (0.04 to 3.20)
COVID-19 related deathOnline supplemental table S3; cohort B32/1293 (205)Insufficient aerobic and muscle strengthening1.0 (ref)*
0/150 (0.0)Muscle strengthening onlyNA
11/561 (2.0)Aerobic only0.71 (0.35 to 1.42)
2/291 (0.7)Aerobic and muscle strengthening0.28 (0.06 to 1.20)
COVID-19 related deathOnline supplemental table S5; cohort C27/33 263 (0.07)Inactive (MET, 0)1.0 (ref)†
5/12 650 (0.05)Insufficiently active (MET, 1–<500)0.81 (0.22 to 2.42)
1/9689 (0.01)Active (MET, 500–<1000)0.17 (0.07 to 0.98)
12/20 793 (0.06)Highly active (MET, ≥1000)0.79 (0.42 to 1.59)
COVID-19 related deathOnline supplemental table S6; propensity score matched cohort C23/29 993 (0.07)Low physical activity (MET, 0–500)1.0 (ref)†
11/29 993 (0.04)High physical activity (MET, ≥500)0.51 (0.26 to 1.01)
COVID-19 related deathOnline supplemental table S8; cohort D39/22 811 (0.17)Inactive (MET, 0)1.0 (ref)†
53/50 052 (0.11)Insufficiently active (MET, 1–<500)0.60 (0.40 to 0.93)
17/25 932 (0.07)Active (MET, 500–<1000)0.35 (0.20 to 0.64)
13/19 973 (0.07)Highly active (MET, ≥1000)0.37 (0.19 to 0.71)
COVID-19 related deathOnline supplemental table S9; propensity score matched cohort D21/11 930 (0.18)Low physical activity (MET, 0–500)1.0 (ref)‡
9/11 930 (0.08)High physical activity (MET, ≥500)0.46 (0.22 to 0.96)
COVID-19 related deathOnline supplemental table S10; cohort E39/803 (4.9)Inactive (MET, 0)1.0 (ref)†
53/1641 (3.2)Insufficiently active (MET, 1–<500)0.74 (0.49 to 1.06)
17/816 (2.1)Active (MET, 500–<1000)0.49 (0.27 to 0.82)
13/622 (2.1)Highly active (MET, ≥1000)0.43 (0.22 to 0.83)
EventsCohortMean day (SD)ExposureAdjusted mean difference* (95% CI)
Length of stay in hospitalOnline supplemental table S3; cohort B27.4 (15.3)Insufficient aerobic and muscle strengthening1.0 (ref)*
26.3 (14.4)Muscle strengthening only−0.68 (3.28 to 1.89)
26.7 (15.4)Aerobic only−0.57 (-2.06 to 0.92)
25.0 (13.6)Aerobic and muscle strengthening2.08 (−4.04 to −0.14)
Length of stay in hospitalOnline supplemental table S10; cohort E27.5 (16.5)Inactive (MET, 0)1.0 (ref)†
27.3 (15.1)Insufficiently active (MET, 1–<500)−0.18 (−1.47 to 1.11)
24.8 (14.3)Active (MET, 500–<1000)1.85 (−3.63 to −0.05)
26.1 (14.3)Highly active (MET, ≥1000)−0.68 (−3.19 to 1.82)
  • Numbers in bold indicate significant differences (p<0.05).

  • *Regression models were adjusted for the age; sex; region of residence (Seoul Capital Area, Daegu/Gyeongbuk area and other areas); Charlson comorbidity index (0, 1 and ≥2); history of diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, stroke and cardiovascular disease; body mass index (continuous; using the restricted cubic spline function); systolic blood pressure (continuous); diastolic blood pressure (continuous); fasting blood glucose (continuous); serum total cholesterol (continuous); glomerular filtration rate (≥90, 60–89 and ≤59 mL/min); household income (low, middle and high); smoking (never, ex and current); alcoholic drinks (<1, 1–2, 3–4 and ≥5 days per week); medication for hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.

  • †Regression models were adjusted for the age (20–59, 60–69, 70–79 and ≥80 years); sex; region of residence (rural and urban); Charlson comorbidity index (0, 1 and ≥2); history of diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, stroke and cardiovascular disease; body mass index (continuous; using the restricted cubic spline function); systolic blood pressure (continuous); diastolic blood pressure (continuous); fasting blood glucose (continuous); serum total cholesterol (continuous); glomerular filtration rate (≥90, 60–89 and ≤59 mL/min); household income (low, middle and high); smoking (never, ex and current); alcoholic drinks (<1, 1–2, 3–4 and ≥5 days per week); medication for hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.

  • ‡Severe COVID-19 consisted of admission to the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation or death.

  • MET, metabolic equivalent of task; RR, relative risk.