Table 1

Estimated annual mortality rate from sudden cardiac death in young athletes with HCM

  • Prevalence of HCM in the athlete population ranges from 1:2000 to 1:500 persons.

  • Supposing 500 000 athletes, the total number of athletes with HCM is 250–1000 persons.

  • Annual incidence rates cited include only SCD and do not include resuscitated cardiac arrest; thus actual rates of all life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias will be higher.

  • Proportion of SCD from HCM listed is based on autopsy confirmation or in vivo diagnosis.

Study and athlete populationAnnual incidence of SCD (athlete-years)Total Number of SCD Cases (in a population of
Proportion of SCD from HCMNumber of Cases of SCD from HCMAnnual mortality rate from HCM-related SCD
Maron et al19
 College athletes1:62 500832.80%2.60.26%–1.0%
 Black college athletes1:26 3151944.70%8.50.85%–3.4%
 White college athletes1:142 8573.544.70%1.60.2%–0.6%
Harmon et al1
 College athletes1:53 7039.38%0.70.07%–0.3%
 Black college athletes1:21 49123.38%1.90.2%–0.8%
 White college athletes1:68 3547.38%0.60.06%–0.2%
 Division I male basketball1:520096.28%7.70.8%–3%
Maron et al3 From the US national registry
 Black/minority athletes1:12 77839.142%16.41.6%–6.6%
 White athletes1:60 7468.231%2.60.3%–1.0%
Harmon et al22
 Male high school athletes1:68 7427.314%10.1%–0.4%
 Female high school athletes1:316 6791.614%0.20.02%–0.08%
Malhotra et al20
 Elite adolescent soccer (95% male)*1:14 79433.837.50%12.71.3%–5.1%
Corrado et al52
 Competitive athletes≤35 years old from Veneto region of Italy†1:62 50082%0.20.02%–0.08%
  • *Study population underwent cardiovascular screening with ECG and echocardiogram at age 16 years.

  • †Study population underwent annual cardiovascular screening with ECG.

  • HCM, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; SCD, sudden cardiac death.