Table 1

CHecklist for statistical Assessment of Medical Papers

Design and conduct
1. Clear description of the goal of research, study objective(s), study design and study populationYesUnclearNo
2. Clear description of outcomes, exposures/treatments and covariates, and their measurement methodsYesUnclearNo
3. Validity of the study designYesUnclearNo
4. Clear statement and justification of sample sizeYesUnclearNo
5. Clear declaration of design violations and acceptability of the design violationsYesUnclearNo
6. Consistency between the paper and its previously published protocolYesUnclearNo
Data analysis
7. Correct and complete description of statistical methodsYesUnclearNo
8. Valid statistical methods used and assumptions outlinedYesUnclearNo
9. Appropriate assessment of treatment effect or interaction between treatment and another covariateYesUnclearNo
10. Correct use of correlation and associational statistical testingYesUnclearNo
11. Appropriate handling of continuous predictorsYesUnclearNo
12. CIs do not include impossible valuesYesUnclearNo
13. Appropriate comparison of baseline characteristics between the study arms in randomised trialsYesUnclearNo
14. Correct assessment and adjustment of confoundingYesUnclearNo
15. Avoiding model extrapolation not supported by dataYesUnclearNo
16. Adequate handling of missing dataYesUnclearNo
Reporting and presentation
17. Adequate and correct description of the dataYesUnclearNo
18. Descriptive results provided as occurrence measures with CIs and analytical results provided as association measures and CIs along with p valuesYesUnclearNo
19. CIs provided for the contrast between groups rather than for each groupYesUnclearNo
20. Avoiding selective reporting of analyses and p-hackingYesUnclearNo
21. Appropriate and consistent numerical precisions for effect sizes, test statistics and p values, and reporting the p values rather than their rangeYesUnclearNo
22. Providing sufficient numerical results that could be included in a subsequent meta-analysisYesUnclearNo
23. Acceptable presentation of figures and tablesYesUnclearNo
24. Interpreting the results based on association measures and 95% CIs along with p values, and correctly interpreting large p values as indecisive results, not evidence of absence of an effectYesUnclearNo
25. Using CIs rather than post hoc power analysis for interpreting the results of studiesYesUnclearNo
26. Correctly interpreting occurrence or association measuresYesUnclearNo
27. Distinguishing causation from association and correlationYesUnclearNo
28. Results of prespecified analyses are distinguished from the results of exploratory analyses in the interpretationYesUnclearNo
29. Appropriate discussion of the study methodological limitationsYesUnclearNo
30. Drawing only conclusions supported by the statistical analysis and no generalisation of the results to subjects outside the target populationYesUnclearNo