Table 3

Meta-analysis for each outcome measure

OutcomeComparisons (n)Meta-analysis of each outcomeTest of heterogeneity
SDMCIP valueI2 (%)P value
Aerobic performance600.051−0.020 to 0.1220.15600.893
Physical performance530.047−0.028 to 0.1210.21800.778
VO2max 28−0.013−0118 to 0.0920.80900.999
Time trial170.059−0.064 to 0.1820.34500.999
To exhaustion360.043−0.059 to 0.1440.411260.260
  • Aerobic performance: maximal physical performance lasting more than 1 min.

  • Physical performance: time to exhaustion, distance covered in a preset time, time to cover a distance/amount of work or contractions to task failure. If a study reported both VO2max/peak and physical performance, physical performance was included in aerobic performance. If only VO2max/peak was reported, VO2max/peak was included in aerobic performance.

  • Time trial: closed-ended tests.

  • To exhaustion: open-ended tests.

  • I2: the proportion of variance that is due to real differences in effect size.

  • SDM, standardised difference in mean; VO2max/peak, maximal oxygen consumption.