Table 1

Characteristics of the studies included in the systematic review and meta-analysis

Study, yearDesignSubjects: n, sex, age, years±SD or rangeFitnessInterventionOutcomes
Molphy et al, 201958 Three-way cross-over16, M/F 8/8, 23±3Recreationally active
>2 times/week
Inhaled terbutaline 2000 μg
Inhaled terbutaline 4000 µg
3000 m treadmill time trial
Merlini et al, 201957 Cross-over13, M, 18±1Amateur footballInhaled salbutamol 1600 μgShuttle run test
Hafedh et al, 201956 Cross-over12, 6/6, 22±1Recreationally activeOral terbutaline 8000 µgShuttle run test
Laurent et al, 201855 Three-way cross-over14, M, 25±5Endurance athletes 6±2 hours/weekInhaled salbutamol 800 µg
Oral salbutamol 4000 µg
Quadriceps contractions to task failure
Eckerström et al, 201854 Cross-over36, M/F 18/18, 26±5Non-athletesInhaled salbutamol 900 µgVO2max
Molphy et al, 201753 Three-way cross-over7, M, 22±1Recreational exercise ≥3 hours/weekInhaled salbutamol 400 µg3000 m treadmill time trial
Halabchi et al, 201752 Cross-over20, M, 17±1Junior professional football playersInhaled 200 µg salbutamol20 m multistage shuttle run test
Hostrup et al, 201662 Parallel20, M, 26±4National level endurance athletes*Oral salbutamol 8000 µg acute and 8000 µg/day for 2 weeksVO2max, time to exhaustion
Koch et al, 201551 Cross-over35, M, 28±5Experienced cyclists/triathletes, VO2max
≥60 mL/kg/min or 5 L
Inhaled salbutamol 400 µg10 km ergometer time trial
Koch et al, 201550 Cross-over15, F, 30±5Cyclists and triathletes VO2max 50 mL/kg/min or 4 LInhaled salbutamol 400 µg10 km ergometer time trial
Koch et al, 201549 Cross-over12, M, 31±7Competitive cyclists VO2max ≥60 mL/kg/min or 5 LInhaled salbutamol 1600 μg10 km ergometer time trial
Hostrup et al, 201561 Parallel18, M, 24±3Recreationally active 4–8 hours/weekOral terbutaline 5000 µg/30 kg body weight, two times per day for 28±1 daysVO2max, cycling to exhaustion, incremental
Kalsen et al, 201448 Cross-over9, M, 24±3Moderately trainedInhaled terbutaline 15 000 µg300 kcal cycling time trial
Hostrup et al, 201447 Cross-over9, M, 24±3Recreationally activeInhaled terbutaline 15 000 µg100 kcal cycling time trial
Dickinson et al, 201460 Parallel16, M, 20±2Amateur-level competitionInhaled salbutamol 1600 µg/day for 6 weeksV̇O2peak, 3 km treadmill time trial
Dickinson et al, 201446 Three-way cross-over7, M, 22±4Runners, >2 times/weekInhaled salbutamol 800 µg and 1600 µg5 km treadmill time trial in 18°C and 30°C
Sanchez et al, 201345 Cross-over7, M, 29±6Competitive recreational athletes, 10 hours/weekOral terbutaline 8000 µgCycling to exhaustion, VO2max
Decorte et al, 201344 Three-way cross-over11, M, 33±6Highly trained cyclists/triathletes/runners, 12±3 hours/week*Inhaled salbutamol 200 µg and 800 µgQuadriceps contractions to task failure
Elers et al, 201243 Cross-over9, M, 27±5Endurance-trained 11 hours/week*Inhaled 8000 µg salbutamolPeak power output, incremental
Beloka et al, 201142 Cross-over21, M, 23±2Healthy non-athletesInfused salbutamol 350 µg or 700 µgVO2max
Andersen and Kanstrup, 200941 Cross-over7, M, 25, 18–30Highly endurance-trained*Oral salbutamol 4000 µgRunning to exhaustion, VO2max
Sporer et al, 200840 Four-way cross-over27, M, 29±6Competitive cyclists and triathletes*Inhaled salbutamol
200 µg, 400 µg and 800 µg
20 km cycling time trial
Decorte et al, 200839 Three-way cross-over10, M, 23±3Healthy non-athletesInhaled salbutamol 200 µg and 800 µgCycling to exhaustion, incremental, VO2max
Tjørhom et al, 200738 Cross-over23, M, 29±5Endurance athletes,
VO2max 60.6 mL/kg/min
Inhaled formoterol 18 µgRunning to exhaustion at −20°C at 107% VO2max, VO2max
Riiser et al, 200637 Cross-over20, M, 29±4Endurance athletes,
VO2max 61.1 mL/kg/min
Inhaled formoterol 18 µgRunning to exhaustion in hypobaric conditions at 107% VO2max, VO2max
van Baak et al, 200436 Cross-over16, M, 23±3Cyclists and triathletes, training 11±3 hours/week*Inhaled 800 µg salbutamolCycling time trial
Stewart et al, 200235 Three-way cross-over10, M, 26, 20–30Highly trained athletes*Inhaled formoterol 12 µg or inhaled salbutamol 400 µgVO2max
Collomp et al, 200234 Cross-over8, M, 26±2Moderately trainedOral salbutamol 6000 µg10 min cycling time trial
Collomp et al, 200029 Cross-over9, M, 25±1Moderately trainedOral salbutamol 6000 µgCycling to exhaustion at 85% of VO2max
Collomp et al, 200030 Cross-over8, M, 23±3Recreational athletes, cycling/running 3–5 times/weekOral salbutamol 12 000 µg/day for 3 weeksCycling to exhaustion at 85% of VO2max
Goubault et al, 200133 Three-way cross-over13, M, 23±2Competitive triathleteInhaled salbutamol 200 µg and 800 µgCycling to exhaustion at 85% of VO2max
Carlsen et al, 200132 Cross-over24, M, 25±3Competitive athletes*Inhaled formoterol 9 µgRunning to exhaustion at 105% of VO2max
van Baak et al, 200031 Cross-over16, M, 23±2Healthy non-athletesOral salbutamol 4000 µgCycling to exhaustion at 70% of VO2max
Sue-Chu et al, 199928 Cross-over8, M, 19–28Highly trained cross-country skiers*Inhaled salmeterol 50 µgRunning to exhaustion at −15°C, incremental
Sandsund et al, 199827 Cross-over8, M, 25±4Highly trained cross-country skiers*Aerosolised salbutamol 1200 µgRunning to exhaustion, incremental, VO2max
Larsson et al, 199726 Cross-over20, M, 24, 18–31Elite endurance athletes*Inhaled terbutaline 3000 µgRunning to exhaustion, incremental, VO2max
Carlsen et al, 199725 Three-way cross-over18, M, 23±6Running >3 times/weekInhaled salbutamol 800 µg
Inhaled salmeterol 50 µg
Running until exhaustion, incremental, VO2max
Norris et al, 199624 Cross-over15, M, 25±4Highly trained cyclistsInhaled 400 µg salbutamol20 km cycling time trial
Heir and Stemshaug,
Cross-over17, M, 18–30Highly conditioned endurance athletes*Aerosolised salbutamol 50 µg/kgRunning to exhaustion at 110% VO2max, VO2peak
Unnithan et al, 199422 Cross-over10, M, 10±1Healthy non-athletesInhaled terbutaline 500 µgTotal running time
Fleck et al, 199321 Cross-over21, M, 24±5Elite cyclistsInhaled salbutamol 360 µgW-max
Morton et al, 199220 Cross-over17, M/F 16/1, 22±4High-performance runners*Inhaled salbutamol 200 µgRunning to exhaustion, incremental
Meeuwisse et al, 199219 Cross-over7, M, 24±4Trained cyclistsInhaled salbutamol 200 μ gEndurance sprint time
Violante et al, 198918 Cross-over7, M, 34±8Sedentary non-athletesIntravenous salbutamol 4 µg/kg followed by 3 µg/kg/hourWalking to exhaustion, incremental
Bedi et al, 198816 Cross-over15, M/F 14/1, 23±5Cyclists, triathletesInhaled salbutamol 180 µgCycling to exhaustion after 60 min submaximal exercise
Booth, 198817 Cross-over10, F, 21±7Trained cyclistsInhaled salbutamol ×2, therapeutic doseCycling to exhaustion
McKenzie et al, 198359 Parallel4, M, 25±8
5, F, 27±10
5, M, 24±9
5, F, 26±13
Highly trained track and field
Inhaled salbutamol 800 µgVO2max
  • *Denotes high-performance endurance athletes.

  • F, female; M, male; VO2max, Maximal oxygen consumption; W-max, maximal workload during incremental cycling.