Table 3

Description of the 19 included trials

First author, yearLocation, settingDiagnosis; diagnostic toolAge (years) (mean (SD))% WomenTypeDuration and frequencyHome practiceControlOutcome(s)/statistic
Behere et al, 2011
India, psychiatric outpatientsSchizophrenia; psychiatrist interview31.3 (9.3)33.6 (9.9)67SVYASA yoga*60 min, 5× week for 12 weeksYesWLCPANSS; mean, SD
Buttner et al†, 2015
USA, communityPostpartum depression; SCID and HDRS (>12)29.8 (5.2)32.5 (4.8)100Vinyasa yoga‡60 min, 2× week for 8 weeksYesWLCHDRS; mean, SD
Field et al†, 2013
USA, communityPrenatal depression; SCID24.4 (4.7)24.5 (5.0)100Yoga20 min, 1× week for 12 weeksNSSocial supportCES-D, salivary cortisol; mean, SD
Field et al†, 2012
USA, communityPrenatal depression/dysthymia; SCID100Yoga20 min, 1× week for 12 weeksNSTAU/
CES-D; mean, SD
Hallgren et al†, 2014
Sweden, outpatientAlcohol dependence; DSM criteriaYoga90 min, 1× week for 10 weeksYesTAUHAD-C; mean, SD
Ikai et al, 2014
Japan, outpatientsSchizophrenia F20-F25; ICD-1053.5 (9.9)48.2 (12.3)34Hatha yoga§60 min, 1× week for 8 weeksNoTAU +walking groupPANSS, FBGL, cholesterol; mean, SD
Ikai et al, 2017
Japan, inpatientsPsychiatric disorders F0-F9; ICD-1055.5 (11.4)55 (15.8)36Chair hatha yoga20 min, 2× week for 12 weeksNSTAUPANSS, hand grip strength, lower limb endurance; mean, SD
Jindani et al†, 2015
USA, communityPTSD; PCL-17 (>57)88Kundalini yoga¶90 min, 1× week for 8 weeksYesWLCDASS-21; mean, SD
Lin et al†, 2015
China, communityPsychosis; DSM-IV criteria23.8 (6.8)25.3 (8.1)100Integrated yoga therapy60 min, 3× week for 12 weeksNSWLCCDS total, PANSS, Vo2 max; mean, SD
Mitchell et al†, 2012
USA, communityPrenatal depression; SCID100Yoga20 min, 2× week for 12 weeksNSEducationCES-D total; mean, SD
Prathikanti et al†, 2017
USA, communityMajor depressive disorder; MINI and BDI (14-28)43.1 (15.2)43.8 (14.7)68Hatha yoga90 min, 2× week for 8 weeksNSEducationBDI; mean SD
Reinhardt et al, 2018
USA, militaryPTSD; SCID-CT44.1 (14)46.6 (12.7)12Kripalu yoga**90 min, 2× week for 10 weeksYesWLCCAPS total; mean, SD
Sarubin et al, 2014
Germany, inpatientMajor depressive disorder; SCID37.3 (11.9)42.4 (12.9)28Hatha yoga60 min, 1× week for 5 weeksTAUHAM-D-21
Uebelacker et al†, 2017
USA, communityMajor depressive disorder; DSM and SCID46.8 (12.3)46.2 (12.1)84Hatha yoga80 min, 1–2× week for 10 weeksYesHealthy living workshopQIDS, SF-20; mean change?
Uebelacker et al†, 2016
USA, communityAntenatal depression; SCID28.0 (5.9)28.9 (6.0)100Yoga75 min, 1× week for 9 weeksYesEducationQIDS; mean, SD
Van der Kolk et al†, 2014
USA, communityPTSD; CAPS41.5 (12.2)44.3 (11.9)100Trauma informed yoga60 min, 1× week for 10 weeksNSEducationBDI; mean, SD
Varambally et al, 2012
India, outpatientSchizophrenia; psychiatrist interview (DSM criteria)32.8 (10)33.6 (9.5)13Yogasana45 min, 6× week for 12 weeksYesWLCPANSS; median, IQR
Visceglia et al†, 2011
USA, inpatientSchizophrenia (axis I or II); SCI-PANSS37.4 (13.7)48.1 (11.2)33Yoga therapy45 min, 2× week for 8 weeksNSWLCPANSS Depression; mean, SD
Weinstock et al†, 2016
USA, communityBipolar depression; SCID41.3 (14.3)33.6 (13.3)56Hatha yoga80 min, 2× week for 10 weeksYesBibliotherapyQIDS; mean, SD
  • N, sample size calculated as number of participants allocated to treatment intervention groups relevant to this study (eg, exercise group excluded from total).

  • *SVYASA (Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana) refers to the yoga practised from the University Research Institute influenced by Swami Vivekananda.

  • †Included in meta-analysis for depressive symptoms.

  • ‡Vinyasa translates to 'to place (the body) in a special way'; postures are typically flowing and synchronised with breath.

  • §Any type of physical yoga practice.

  • ¶Kundalini yoga focuses on awaking Kundalini energy through practices comprising gentle yoga postures, breathing techniques, meditation and chanting of mantras.

  • **Kripalu yoga is a gentle form of hatha yoga, with attention to modifying poses in a way that is best for your body.

  • BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; CAPS, Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5; CDS, Carroll Depression Scale; CES-D, Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression; DASS, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale; DSM, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders; FBGL, fasting blood glucose levels; HADC, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HAM-D/HDRS, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; ICD-10, International Classification of Diseases 10th edition; MINI, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview; NS, not stated; PANSS, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale ; PCL-17, PTSD checklist-17; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder; QIDS, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology; SCID, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5; SCID-CT, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5-Clinical Trials Version; SCI-PANSS, Structured Clinical Interview-Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; SF-20, Short Form Health Survey; TAU, treatment as usual; WLC, waitlist control.