Table 1

Summary of previous literature reviews on yoga and mental disorders

AuthorYearSystematic reviewMeta-analysisPopulationAssessment of risk of biasDSM/ICD diagnostic criteriaReference to PRISMA statementGeneral result
Balasubramaniam et al 68 2013YesNoVaried psychiatric disordersYesNoYesHigh quality evidence for positive effect on depression and sleep
Broderick et al 69 2015NoNoSchizophreniaYesYesYesEvidence too weak
Cramer et al 26 2013YesYesSchizophreniaYesYesYesModerate evidence for positive short term effect on quality of life
Cramer et al 70 2017YesNoDepressionYesYesYesComparable effects of yoga compared with exercise and medication
Cramer et al 71 2018YesYesPTSDYesNoYesWeak recommendation for yoga as an adjunctive treatment
Cramer et al 72 2018YesYesAnxietyYesNoYesModerate evidence for medium–large effect compared with no treatment and active comparator control
Cramer et al 28 2013YesYesDepressionYesYesYesLimited to moderate evidence for improvements in depression and anxiety
Da Silva et al 73 2009NoNoVaried psychiatric disordersNoNoNoModerate evidence for positive effect on mood disorders
Gallegos et al 74 2017NoYesPTSDYesNoNoSmall to moderate effect on PTSD symptoms
Gong et al 60 2015YesYesPrenatal depressionNoNoNoLow–moderate quality evidence for reducing depressive symptoms
Kirkwood et al 27 2005YesNoAnxietyNoNoNoHigh quality evidence for positive effect on OCD
Pilkington et al 29 2005NoNoDepressionNoNoNoEvidence too weak
Uebelacker et al 30 2010NoNoDepressionNoNoNoEvidence too weak
Vancampfort et al 75 2012YesNoSchizophreniaNoYesYesModerate evidence for improved psychopathology, positive and negative symptoms, HRQL
  • DSM, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders; GAD, generalised anxiety disorder; HRQL, health related quality of life; ICD, International Classification of Diseases ; OCD, obsessive compulsive disorder ; PRISMA, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder.