Table 1

Patient characteristics by exercise level

Consistently inactive (n=6984)Some activity (n=38 338)Consistently meeting PA guidelines (n=3118)Total (n=48 440)P value*
Age at index date<0.0001
 Mean (SD)49.4 (16.88)47.8 (16.95)40.6 (15.72)47.5 (16.97)
 Median (Q1, Q3)49 (36.0, 60.0)47 (34.0, 60.0)38 (27.0, 52.0)47 (33.0, 60.0)
 Age group, n (%)<0.0001
 <60 years5176 (14.3)28 492 (78.4)2652 (7.3)36 320
 60–69 years973 (14.2)5585 (81.3)313 (4.6)6871
 70–79 years433 (12.9)2803 (83.4)126 (3.7)3362
 80+ years402 (21.3)1458 (77.3)27 (1.4)1887
Gender, n (%)<0.0001
 Female4244 (14.2)24 284 (81)1464 (4.9)29 992
 Male2740 (14.9)14 053 (76.2)1654 (9)18 447
 Unknown0 (0)1 (100)0 (0)1
Race/ethnicity, n (%)<0.0001
 Asian365 (13)2228 (79.7)204 (7.3)2797
 Black476 (13.6)2857 (81.8)160 (4.6)3493
 Hispanic4734 (15)25 007 (79.5)1729 (5.5)31 470
 Native American/Alaskan9 (10.2)75 (85.2)4 (4.5)88
 Pacific Islander37 (12)254 (82.2)18 (5.8)309
 White1148 (13)6873 (77.6)835 (9.4)8856
 Other215 (15.1)1044 (73.2)168 (11.8)1427
BMI<0.0001
 Mean (SD)32.2 (7.39)31.3 (7.06)28.2 (5.45)31.2 (7.07)
 Median (Q1, Q3)31.4 (27.3, 36.2)30.2 (26.4, 35.1)27.4 (24.5, 30.9)30.2 (26.3, 35.0)
 BMI group, n (%)<0.0001
 <25 kg/m2 1010 (11.9)6521 (77)933 (11)8464
 25–29 kg/m2 1895 (12.5)12 025 (79.4)1216 (8)15 136
 30–39 kg/m2 3141 (16)15 652 (79.7)842 (4.3)19 635
 ≥40 kg/m2 936 (18)4134 (79.6)126 (2.4)5196
Smoking, n (%)<0.0001
 Ever1558 (15.5)8008 (79.6)492 (4.9)10 058
 Never4084 (13.7)23 882 (80)1886 (6.3)29 852
Utilisations, clinical characteristics and comorbidities, n (%)
 Emergency encounters1019 (14.5)5702 (81.4)287 (4.1)7008<0.0001
 Inpatient encounters317 (16)1618 (81.8)43 (2.2)1978<0.0001
 Ever had organ transplant12 (8.5)129 (91.5)0 (0)1410.0005
 Pregnant at index date184 (12.5)1224 (83.4)59 (4)1467<0.0001
 Cardiovascular disease689 (16.5)3410 (81.6)82 (2)4181<0.0001
 COPD788 (14.5)4449 (81.7)210 (3.9)5447<0.0001
 Renal disease459 (17.3)2149 (81)46 (1.7)2654<0.0001
 Cancer108 (12)768 (85.4)23 (2.6)899<0.0001
 Metastatic cancer47 (16.4)232 (80.8)8 (2.8)2870.0326
 Hypertension1682 (15.6)8827 (81.7)297 (2.7)10 806<0.0001
 Diabetes, n (%)<0.0001
 A1C<7%1849 (13.8)10 813 (80.7)733 (5.5)13 395
 7%≤A1C<8%316 (14.8)1758 (82.6)55 (2.6)2129
 A1C≥8%500 (16)2566 (82)63 (2)3129
  • *Determined by the χ² test for categorical variables, exact test for categorical variables with a count <5 and Kruskal–Wallis test for continuous variables.

  • BMI, body mass index; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; PA, physical activity.