Table 1

Diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome/labral injury: effectiveness of clinical tests and grading the quality of evidence. ‘Quality of evidence’ refers to the overall quality of evidence for either positive or negative likelihood ratios across studies, whereas ‘diagnostic effectiveness across studies’ shows the range of diagnostic effectiveness (and number of patients) for studies of a specific test

Likelihood ratioQuality of evidenceDiagnostic effectiveness across studies
HighModerateLowVery low
FADIR test (pain provocation)
FAI syndrome/labral injury
Based on two meta-analyses (n=188 and n=319)13 and one cohort study (n=49)50 LR+=0.86–1.04Lown=556
LR−=0.14–2.3Very lown=319n=188n=49
FAI syndrome
Based on nine cohort studies (n=693)45–49 51 52 63 67 LR+=1.00–3.30Lown=69n=624
LR−=0.09–0.83Very lown=35n=94n=364n=200
Labral injury
Based on seven cohort studies (n=325)49 56 60 61 64 65 68 LR+=1.00–2.30Very lown=18n=307
F-IR test (pain provocation)
Labral injury
Based on one meta-analysis (n=27)13 and one cohort study (n=30)55 LR+=1.10–1.28Very lown=57
FABER test (pain provocation)
FAI syndrome
Based on two cohort studies (n=138)45 52 LR+=0.79–0.87Moderaten=138
FABER test (restricted ROM)
FAI syndrome
Based on two cohort studies (n=678)52 54 LR+=1.01–1.36Moderaten=678
Internal rotation in neutral hip position (restrictedrange of motion)
FAI syndrome
Based on one cohort studies (n=63)45 LR+=4.83Lown=63
  • The diagnostic effectiveness of the positive (LR+) and negative (LR) likelihood ratios are classified individually as: very low (LR+: 1–2; LR−: 0.5–1), low (LR+:>2–5; LR−: 0.2-<0.5), moderate (LR+:>5–10; LR−: 0.1–<0.2); high (LR+: >10; LR−: <0.1).

  • FABER, Flexion Abduction External Rotation; FADIR, Flexion Adduction Internal Rotation; FAI, femoroacetabular impingement; F-IR, Flexion Internal Rotation.