Table 1

Methodological quality of the included studies (n=42)

Study123456789Overall score (0–9)
Antonietti et al, 200822 YYNYYYYYY8
Bauerfeind et al, 201533 YYNYNYUYN5
Bernardi et al, 200346 YYYYYYYYY9
Blauwet et al, 20163 YYYYYYYYY9
Chung et al, 201259 YYNYNUUYN4
Curtis et al, 199947 YYNYUYUYU5
Derman et al, 201639 YYYYYYYYY9
Derman et al, 20187 YYYYYYYYY9
Derman et al, 202040 YYYYYYYYY9
Fagher et al, 201941 YYNYYYYYY8
Fagher et al, 202048 YYNYYYYYY8
Fagher et al, 202031 YYNYYYYYY8
Ferrara et al, 199253 YYNYNUNUU3
Ferrara et al, 199242 YYYYUYYYU7
Ferrara and Davis, 199443 YYYYYYUYU7
Ferrara and Buckley, 199661 YYYYYYUYU7
Ferrara et al, 200054 YYYUUUUUU3
Gajardo et al, 201944 YYNYYNYYY7
Gawroński et al, 201345 YYNYYYUYU6
Haykowsky et al, 199932 YYNYNYUNN4
Hollander et al, 201955 YYNYYYYYU7
Kubosch et al, 201723 YYNYUYYYU6
Lankhorst et al, 201934 YYNYYNYYY7
Magno e Silva et al, 201335 YYNYYNUYU5
Magno e Silva et al, 201336 YYNYYNUYU5
Magno e Silva et al, 201337 YYNYYNUYU5
Marqueta et al, 200524 YYNYNUUNU3
McCormick et al, 199025 YYYYYYUYN7
Nyland et al, 200056 YYYYYNNYU6
Ona Ayala et al, 201926 YYYYYYYYU8
Patatoukas et al, 201149 YYNYUNNYU4
Ramirez et al, 200960 YYYYYNNYY7
Saffarian et al, 201938 YYYYUNNYN5
Shimizu et al, 201750 YYNYYYUYN6
Taylor and Williams, 199527 YYNYNUNYU4
Tenforde et al, 201951 YYYYYNUYN6
Webborn et al, 200629 YYYYNNUNN4
Webborn et al, 201257 YYYUUUUYU4
Webborn et al, 201658 YYYUYYYYY8
Willick et al, 201330 YYYYYYYYU8
Willick et al, 201628 YYYYYYYYU8
Zwierzchowska et al, 202052 YYNYYNUYY6
Total ‘yes’ scores424220392824183714
  1. Was the sample frame appropriate to address the target population?

  2. Were study participants sampled in an appropriate way?

  3. Was the sample size adequate?

  4. Were the study subjects and the setting described in detail?

  5. Was the data analysis conducted with sufficient coverage of the identified sample?

  6. Were valid methods used for the identification of the condition?

  7. Was the condition measured in a standard, reliable way for all participants?

  8. Was there appropriate statistical analysis?

  9. Was the response rate adequate, and if not, was the low response rate managed appropriately?

  • N, no; NA, not applicable; U, unclear; Y, yes.