Table 1

Comparison between athletes after SARS-CoV-2 infection, healthy athlete controls and healthy, less active controls

Athletes after SARS-CoV-2 infection (n=147)Healthy athletic controls (n=59)Healthy, less active controls (n=56)Athletes after SARS-CoV-2 infection versus healthy athletic controls
P values
Athletes after SARS-CoV-2 infection versus healthy, less active controls
P values
Group characteristics
 Age (years), median (IQR)23 (20–28)25 (21–29)24 (23–28)0.1460.062
 Sex: female, N (%)53 (36)20 (34)20 (36)0.7710.864
 Body surface area (m2), average ±SD2±0.22±0.31.9±0.20.4130.003
 Heart rate (beats/min), median (IQR)60 (53–69)62 (56–72)71 (63–84)0.032<0.001
 Degree of training (hours/week), median (IQRS)15 (12–22)19 (15–22)0.024
 Sport discipline, N (%)0.077
  Skill2 (1)0 (0)
  Power9 (6)9 (15)
  Mixed108 (74)35 (60)
  Endurance28 (19)15 (25)
 Member of a national team, N (%)87 (60)52 (91)<0.001
 Member of an Olympic team, N (%)17 (12)15 (26)0.014
CMR parameters
Standard left and right ventricular parameters
 LVEF (%), median (IQR)57 (54–60)56 (53–60)59 (57–62)0.473<0.001
 LVEDVi (mL/m2), median (IQR)111 (100–123)111 (102–122)91 (83–100)0.523<0.001
 LVESVi (mL/m2), median (IQR)48 (40–55)47 (43–53)38 (34–42)0.52<0.001
 LVSVi (mL/m2), median (IQR)63 (58–69)64 (58–68)54 (50–59)0.685<0.001
 LVMi (g/m2) median (IQR)58 (49–65)59 (50–73)47 (39–51)0.199<0.001
 RVEF (%), median (IQR)56 (53–59)55 (52–58)57 (54–61)0.140.014
 RVEDVi (mL/m2), median (IQR)110 (99–121)113 (103–127)90 (79–103)0.119<0.001
 RVESVi (mL/m2), median (IQR)48 (41–55)50 (44–59)38 (33–47)0.055<0.001
 RVSVi (mL/m2), median (IQR)61 (56–67)63 (57–68)53 (47–58)0.229<0.001
Global left and right ventricular strain
 LV-GLS (%) median (IQR)−21 (−23 to −19)−20 (−23 to 19)−22 (−24 to −20)0.942<0.001
 LV-GCS (%), average ±SD−28±4−28±4−31±30.426<0.001
 LV-GRS (%), median (IQR)52 (46–60)50 (45–58)56 (53–62)0.609<0.001
 RV-GLS (%), average ±SD−24±4−24±3−25±40.6910.21
Parametric mapping
 T1 mapping (ms), median (IQR)958 (939–970)955 (934–973)972 (960–987)0.564<0.001
 T2 mapping (ms), median (IQR)45 (43–46)44 (43–46)44 (43–45)0.1960.215
  • CMR, cardiac magnetic resonance; GCS, global circumferential strain; GLS, global longitudinal strain; GRS, global radial strain; LEDVi, left ventricular end diastolic volume index; LV, left ventricular; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVESVi, left ventricular end systolic volume index; LVMi, left ventricular mass index; RV, right ventricular; RVEDVi, right ventricular end diastolic volume index; RVEF, right ventricular ejection fraction; RVESVi, right ventricular end systolic volume index; RVMi, right ventricular mass index; SLVi, left ventricular stroke volume index.