Table 4

Personal characteristics

Variable N Missing nCG (n=229)EG (n=227)
Age (year), mean (SD)456013.3 (2.2)13.3 (2.1)
Sex (female), frequency (%)4560100 (43.7)101 (44.5)
Time from head injury to triage (hour), median (IQR)45333.0 (1.7–17.6)3.3 (1.6–22.0)
Personal migraine history, frequency (%)455114 (6.1)11 (4.9)
Previous concussions, frequency (%)456085 (37.1)65 (28.6)
Number of previous concussions (among those who had any previous concussion), median (IQR)15001 (1–2)1 (1–2)
Symptom duration of previous concussion (week) ≥1, frequency (%)150056 (65.9)45 (69.2)
Mechanism of injury, frequency (%)4542
 Occupant in motor vehicle collision6 (2.6)0 (0.0)
 Pedestrian struck by motor vehicle1 (0.4)0 (0.0)
 Cyclist struck by motor vehicle0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Cyclist collision or fall4 (1.8)0 (0.0)
 Fall from elevation (including playground equipment)8 (3.5)6 (2.7)
 Fall down stairs3 (1.3)5 (2.2)
 Fall from standing/walking/running27 (11.8)36 (15.9)
 Sport124 (54.4)114 (50.4)
 Collision with stationary object11 (4.8)13 (5.8)
 Other mechanism44 (19.3)52 (23.0)
Loss of consciousness, frequency (%)456038 (16.6)43 (18.9)
Duration of loss of consciousness, frequency (%)810
 <1 min29 (76.3)31 (72.1)
 1–5 min8 (21.1)10 (23.3)
 >5 min1 (2.6)2 (4.7)
Seizure, frequency (%)45601 (0.4)3 (1.3)
Answers questions slowly, frequency (%)456094 (41.0)110 (48.5)
Headache, frequency (%)4560212 (92.6)205 (90.3)
Sensitivity to noise, frequency (%)4560126 (55.0)128 (56.4)
Fatigue, frequency (%)4560192 (83.8)200 (88.1)
Balance error score tandem stance≥4, frequency (%)455146 (20.2)55 (24.2)
HBI score in ED, mean (SD)454223.4 (10.0)24.2 (10.8)
  • CG, control group; ED, emergency department; EG, experimental group; HBI, Health and Behaviour Inventory;