Table 1

Demographic data, clinical tests and MRI characteristics at initial visit

Operative
N=26
Non-operative
N=33
Total
N=59
P value
Demographic data
GenderFemale11 (42%)15 (45%)26 (44%)0.81
Male15 (58%)18 (55%)33 (56%)
Age51 (IQR: 37–57)49 (IQR: 45–56)51 (IQR: 45–56)0.85
Level of participation


No sports1 (4%)2 (6%)3 (5%)0.26
Recreational13 (50%)19 (58%)32 (54%)
Competitive10 (38%)12 (36%)22 (37%)
Professional2 (8%)0 (%)2 (3%)
Days from injury to initial visit12 (IQR: 6–19)21 (IQR: 12–48)15 (IQR: 9.5–39)0.004
Days from injury to start of treatment30 (IQR: 21–45)21 (IQR: 12–48)29 (IQR: 16–47)0.35
Acute or delayed treatment
Acute (≤8 weeks)22 (85%)26 (79%)48 (81%)0.57
Delayed (>8 weeks)4 (15%)7 (21%)11 (19%)
Clinical tests
Hamstring flexibility
(° difference with contralateral leg)
PSLR−34±18−12±17−21±20<0.001
AKET−28±19−11±17−18±200.001
Isometric hamstring strength
(% of contralateral leg)

Prone 0°/90°*39 (IQR: 24.5–45.5)64 (IQR: 50–86.5)50 (IQR: 39–65.5)<0.001
Prone 0°/15°*0 (IQR: 0–26)32 (IQR: 20.5–50)26.5 (IQR: 0–43)0.001
Supine 90°/90°*32±1750±2243±220.003
MRI
Side of injury
Right14 (54%)12 (36%)26 (44%)0.18
Left12 (46%)21 (64%)33 (56%)
Tendon(s) with proximal full-thickness free tendon discontinuity

Conjoint tendon0 (0%)2 (6%)2 (3%)0.07
Semimembranosus tendon0 (0%)4 (12%)4 (7%)
Both tendons26 (100%)27 (82%)53 (90%)
Tendon retraction


Conjoint tendon (mm)33 (IQR: 25–60)63 (IQR: 28–83)47 (IQR: 26–71)0.12
>20 mm21/26 (81%)23/29 (79%)44/55 (80%)0.89
Semimembranosus (mm)40 (IQR: 27–71)74.5 (IQR: 31–91)57 (IQR: 28–84)0.08
>20 mm25/26 (96%)25/31 (81%)50/57 (88%)0.08
Sciatic nerve†

Increased signal intensity16 (62%)18 (55%)34 (58%)0.59
Enlargement21 (81%)24 (73%)45 (76%)0.47
Contact with perinervous scarring4 (15%)11 (33%)15 (25 %)0.12
Questionnaires
TAS (before injury)5.5 (IQR: 4–7.5)6 (IQR: 4–7)6 (IQR: 4–7)0.71
PHAT score32±1645±1740±180.003
  • *Degrees hip/knee flexion.

  • †More than one answer possible.

  • AKET, active knee extension test; PHAT, Perth Hamstring Assessment Tool; PSLR, passive straight leg raise; TAS, Tegner Activity Scale.