Table 2

Clinical outcome at 2-month follow-up, 6-month follow-up and 1-year follow-up

2-month follow-up6-month follow-up1-year follow-up
Operative
N=26
Non-operative
N=33
Total
N=59
Operative
N=26
Non-operative
N=33
Total
N=59
Operative
N=26
Non-operative
N=33
Total
N=59
P value
Return to sports (RTS)



RTS at pre-injury level0 (0%)3 (9%)3 (5%)2 (8%)7 (21%)9 (15%)7 (27%)11 (33%)18 (31%)0.80
RTS at different level2 (8%)2 (6%)4 (7%)8 (31%)5 (15%)13 (22%)10 (39%)12 (36%)22 (37%)
RTS in different sport1 (4%)8 (24%)9 (15%)5 (19%)9 (27%)14 (24%)2 (8%)4 (12%)6 (10%)
No RTS21 (84%)18 (55%)40 (68%)10 (39%)10 (30%)20 (34%)6 (23%)4 (12%)10 (17%)
No sports prior to injury1 (4%)2 (6%)3 (5%)1 (4%)2 (6%)3 (5%)1 (4%)2 (6%)3 (5%)
Time to RTS (weeks)25 (IQR: 20–33.5)24 (IQR: 16–36)24 (IQR: 16–36)0.71
Recurrence0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (4%)0 (0%)1 (2%)0.26
Clinical tests
Hamstring flexibility
(difference with contralateral leg in °)
PSLR−6±102±11−2±110±92±101±90.63
AKET−2±103±111±100±94±103±90.12
Isometric hamstring strength
(% of contralateral leg)

Prone 0°/90°*67.5 (IQR: 64–80)84.5 (IQR: 74.5–93)76 (IQR: 66.5–92.5)73 (IQR: 64–81.5)91 (IQR: 80–96)82.5 (IQR: 73–94)<0.001
Prone 0°/15°*62 (IQR: 51.5–70)54.5 (IQR: 45.5–73.5)61.5 (IQR: 47.5–72.5)66.5 (IQR: 54–80)60 (IQR: 46–74.5)63.5 (IQR: 50.5–77.5)0.12
Supine 90°/90°*77.5 (IQR: 68–95.5)72.5 (IQR: 61.5–85)76 (IQR: 65.5–86.5)78 (IQR: 64–93.5)76.5 (IQR: 68–89)77 (IQR: 66.5–91)0.87
Questionnaires
EQ-5D-3L




Mobility†13 (50%)22 (67%)35 (59%)17 (65%)24 (73%)41 (70%)22 (85%)23 (70%)45 (76%)0.18
Self-care†17 (65%)32 (97%)49 (83%)22 (85%)33 (100%)55 (93%)25 (96%)33 (100%)58 (98%)0.26
Usual activities†8 (31%)22 (67%)30 (51%)15 (58%)23 (70%)38 (64%)19 (73%)26 (79%)45 (76%)0.61
Pain/discomfort†11 (42%)15 (46%)26 (44%)10 (39%)18 (55%)28 (48%)14 (54%)19 (58%)33 (56%)0.78
Anxiety/depression†22 (85%)30 (91%)52 (88%)21 (81%)31 (94%)52 (88%)25 (96%)32 (97%)57 (97%)0.86
Quality of life (VAS)70±1775±1673±1680±1675±1578±1583±1283±1583±130.86
N=20N=25N=45N=20N=25N=45N=20N=25N=45
TAS2 (IQR: 2–4)4 (IQR: 3–4)4 (IQR: 2–4)4 (IQR: 3.5–5)4 (IQR: 4–6)4 (IQR: 4–5)4.5 (IQR: 4–6)5 (IQR: 5–6)5 (IQR: 4–6)0.13
PHIQ






Pain (past week, VAS)2 (IQR: 1–4)0 (IQR: 0–2.5)1 (IQR: 0–3)1 (IQR: 1–2.5)1 (IQR: 0–2)1 (IQR: 0–2)1 (IQR: 0–2)1 (IQR: 0–2)1 (IQR: 0–2)0.38
Use of pain medication6 (30%)4 (17%)10 (22%)6 (30%)5 (20%)11 (24%)2 (10%)1 (4%)3 (7%)0.43
Stiffness in injured leg11 (55%)10 (40%)21 (47%)16 (80%)12 (48%)28 (62%)12 (60%)7 (28%)19 (42%)0.03
Numbness/tingling in injured leg7 (35%)11 (44%)18 (40%)3 (15%)10 (40%)13 (29%)2 (10%)10 (40%)12 (27%)0.03
Self-estimated recovery‡0 (0%)1 (4%)1 (2%)1 (5%)4 (16%)5 (11%)4 (20%)6 (24%)10 (22%)0.75
Self-estimated strength‡0 (0%)1 (4%)1 (2%)0 (0%)1 (4%)1 (2%)2 (10%)3 (12%)5 (11%)0.83
Satisfied with outcome11 (55%)12 (48%)23 (51%)15 (75%)10 (40%)25 (56%)17 (85%)19 (76%)36 (80%)0.46
Sports participation (hours/week)0 (IQR: 0–2.5)4 (IQR: 0–6.5)1 (IQR: 0–4.5)2.5 (IQR: 0–6)3.5 (IQR: 2–5.5)3 (IQR: 2–6)4.5 (IQR: 0–6.5)4 (IQR: 2.5–7)4 (IQR: 2–7)0.37
  • *Degrees hip/knee flexion.

  • †% of patients reporting no symptoms/problems.

  • ‡% of patients estimating recovery at 100%

  • AKET, active knee extension test; PHIQ, proximal hamstring injury questionnaire; PSLR, passive straight leg raise; TAS, Tegner Activity Scale; VAS, Visual Analogue Scale.