Table 1

Framework for this scoping review per the guidelines of Arksey and O’Malley9 and later modified by Levac et al 10

#1 Identifying the research questionInvestigating the operative and non-operative management of Achilles tendon rupture in elite athletes.
#2 Identifying the relevant studiesElite athletes defined as professional or Division I NCAA collegiate athletes in baseball, basketball, American football, hockey or soccer.
#3 Study selectionPubMed search for elite athletes that were evaluated in terms of their athletic performance following Achilles tendon rupture using an objective measure of performance. Search yielded 13 studies for inclusion.
#4 Charting the dataDecision based on available evidence to provide a broad overview of relevant studies in terms of preoperative versus postoperative performance after Achilles injury, as well as a comparison to uninjured controls.
#5 Reporting the resultsHigh levels of RTP across all sports, with worse performance reported in NBA players after RTP, varying performance reported in soccer, NFL and NCAA football, and no significant differences after RTP in MLB.
  • NCAA, National Collegiate Athletic Association; MLB, Major League Baseball; RTP, return to play.